Obviously, the more information you can provide, the more results you will receive. But not everyone has access to all of their ancestral information. . Digging up various info about yourself can be time-consuming and downright impossible for some. That’s why it’s important to look for services that are flexible with how much information they’ll require from you.
Most direct-to-consumer DNA test companies warn that the tests may reveal things you wish you didn’t know about your family. For example, you could find out that one of the people who raised you isn’t your biological parent or that there’s an entire branch of your family you didn’t know about. There isn’t a way to prepare for a shock like that, but you can opt out of a company’s family-matching services if you’d rather not know.
This test is not designed to do anything other than provide you with a genetic overview based on your sample. My wife's sample indicated that her heritage was part German and part Scandinavian - no surprises there as we were colonised by both sets of peoples. What has been astonishing are the links which her DNA has established exist and now she is in contact with distant relatives in Australia and Canada (they contacted her via Ancestry messaging system). Their familial connection has been verified through examining their respective family trees. Effectively this test is useful as a tool when combined with the ancestry database of births and death, weddings etc. To maximise the benefits therefore you are likely to have to subscribe to access the database and in My case, with worldwide access, it will cost us (my wife and I can both use it) £99, but there are offers from time to time.
DNA tests offer a wealth of insights into your connections to family, history and geographical locations. They both entertain and encourage you to dig into what you know about yourself. The tests make great gifts to bring you closer to your family and involve you and your family in the development of a cutting-edge science at the same time. Beyond that, the information is extremely useful for adoptees, people looking for lost relatives, genealogists and for medical science. 
For better ancestry and medical insights, you should encourage family members, especially parents and grandparents, to take a DNA test as well. If your family is from a specific geographical location for generations, your samples could potentially improve the service's reference panel, in turn improving results for everyone. If you’re female and take a test from 23andMe or LivingDNA, you can view paternal haplogroup information, and you get more information when one of your male family members takes a test as well.
In fairness to 23andME, it leaves it up to the customer to unlock the more serious results – or not. When I unlock mine, I discover that, while I’m not genetically predisposed to such things as the BRAC1 or BRAC2 variant, Parkinson’s or MS, I have one of the variants for late-onset (mid-80s) Alzheimer’s. However, I don’t have any other markers for Alzheimer’s or family history or conditions associated with it or anything else listed in the rather lengthy disclaimer, which also stresses that it’s not a diagnostic result and to seek further advice from your GP if you are concerned.
In McCartney’s view, enough testing is already done in this country (sometimes too much) and there are issues of regulation and “informed consent”. “People are given very dramatic reasons to have these tests – it could help save your life, it could help improve the quality of your life – but where is the actual controlled evidence that these tests have ever done that? There’s no evidence that says doing these tests makes people become healthier.”
Newman says that there’s a basic lack of “literacy” and understanding about genetic testing, among the public and even other health professionals. People are given false reassurances or made to panic (just because you have certain genetic variants, it doesn’t mean that you will develop a particular condition). Newman also makes the point that, in his field, counselling happens before and after testing and, while people with cancer or heart issues nearly always opt to have the test (as they can then take action to varying degrees), often people with conditions such as Huntington’s disease in their family decide not to go ahead because a diagnosis would change nothing for them. In any event, Newman says that, with genetic testing, while there are different levels, intensive counselling is always “absolutely key”.

While men can trace both their maternal haplogroup (from mitochondrial DNA) and their paternal haplogroup (through the Y chromosome passed down from their father), women can only trace their maternal haplogroup (through the mitochondrial DNA passed down from their mother). This is because the paternal haplogroup is traced through the Y chromosome, which women do not inherit.
Next, you'll receive an email alert that your results are ready, and that's when the fun begins. Your results may not be as dramatic as those portrayed in TV ads, but you may find some surprises. One important note: Results are different for women and men. Women, who have the XX chromosome, can only trace back the maternal line. Men, having the XY chromosome, can track back the maternal and paternal line, painting a complete picture. If you're a woman, it's worth asking your brother, if you have one, to take a test and share the results. When some of these services ask for your sex when you order your kit, they simply want to know about your chromosomes.

Paternity tests: At-home paternity tests have been around much longer than other direct-to-consumer DNA tests. Most of them require you to collect cheek swab samples from a prospective father and child, which you then send off to a lab to determine paternity. For non-legal use, these tests can cost as little as $15, but tests that provide verified results that are admissible in court cost a few hundred dollars.
Findmypast & Living DNA are excited about the opportunities this partnership creates for everyone from serious genealogists to those just starting to explore their family history. As we focus on the best of British and Irish family history, we are committed to continue making improvements to the Findmypast DNA test to make it possible to not only discover where your ancestors came from, but learn their amazing stories too.
I sadly have to agree as after the results appeared in my Ancestry account I was very disappointed to see that they failed to disclose any sign of my Italian heritage at all and even clicking through the Engilsh ethnic breakdown showed absolutely NO connection to any place whatsoever so apparently I am an alien who was dropped here from outer space so I could not recommend this as a service that produces a valid ethnic breakdown at all. Their results graph and click through breakdown are extremely limited, especially after comparing them with other services so from the ethnicity perspective, think they are bordering on false advertising!!
Another key customer type could be people like myself, hurtling through middle age, perhaps just starting to feel the cold bony hand of mortality clamp down on their shoulder. People, who, in the past, may not have exactly prioritised their health, who are starting to wonder what may be in store for them and who are in the (“Hypochondriacs R Us”) market for some hard-core insight and advice.
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