It’s easy to do these tests; it’s usually just a case of collecting your own samples at home, filling in short, basic questionnaires, posting the packages, and then logging on to interactive websites for confidential results (all the kits I tested used outside laboratories). With an array of price ranges and options, from one-off DNA-blitzes to targeting specific health areas, to fitness/wellness tracking, it’s no surprise that these kits are proving to be very big business and the field is primed to get even bigger, with a global market estimated to be worth around £7.7bn by 2022.
A. DNA Clinics do not offer free DNA testing. The service in the UK for establishing genetic biological relationships is predominantly carried out by the private sector. The NHS does not offer DNA testing for paternity or other relationships. Companies offering free DNA testing are falsely advertising the service. DNA Clinics provide the DNA test kit free of charge, with payment for the test due on return of your samples.
AncestryDNA, 23andMe, HomeDNA, Living DNA, and MyHeritage DNA all provide reports of your ethnicity, some showing maps of where your ancestors lived along with information about the particular countries and regions. National Geographic goes further back, pinpointing where in Africa your ancestors came from and tracing migration patterns through to near-present times. It's less about your personal genetic makeup and more about who your ancestors were and how you're connected to the beginning of civilization.
Otherwise, the home-testing kits could be said to fit in with our increasingly health-conscious and, if you wish to be cynical, narcissistic times. What says you’re “special” more than finding out everything about yourself, right down to the nitty-gritty of genetics? In this way, these kits could be viewed as the latest plaything of the “worried well”. You could see how the scientific approach would appeal to the health-obsessed of all sexes and ages, your marathon runners and serious gym-goers, who take their fitness extremely seriously.
If you’re already using a specific geneology program, use their DNA test. I used My Heritage while I was using Ancestry for my family tree. I got called by a high pressure salesman to sign up for the My Heritage geneology program. (I had uploaded my gedcom to the My Heritage site.) I told him that I couldn’t afford two geneology sites. The guy was snotty and condescending. We figure we just wasted our money with My Heritage and will do the Ancestry DNA as soon as we can afford it.

Haplogroups are a different story. Your maternal line haplogroup assignment is derived from a separate piece of DNA called the mitochondria. Since mitochondria is passed on only by mothers to their children, your maternal line haplogroup assignment only tells you about your mother's side of the family. Similarly, the paternal line haplogroup assignment is derived from a different, separate piece of DNA called the Y chromosome. The Y chromosome is only passed from fathers to sons and only traces the paternal line.
EasyDNA UK specialises in providing DNA tests that are affordable, accurate and confidential. Our home paternity test is on special offer at just £99 for a limited period. There are NO EXTRA FEES. Sample collection is performed using our easy-to-use DNA test kit. Your DNA paternity testing results are ready in only 3-5 working days. We also offer the option of getting results in 3 working days with our express service (from receipt of samples at the laboratory). EasyDNA tests 21 genetic markers for total accuracy so you can have the peace of mind that you need. A home paternity test provides a 99.99% accurate result if the alleged father is the biological father and a 100% accuracy if he is not.
The trick for collecting a saliva sample is to give yourself plenty of time to create enough spit to fill your tube to the fill line (not including any bubbles). You should not eat or drink anything for at least an hour before collecting your sample, so it’s best to plan to collect your sample before eating. Our testers collected samples before lunch and found that thinking about the upcoming meal made saliva production easier, particularly as we collected multiple samples. Planning ahead and making sure you stay hydrated before you collect a saliva sample helps as well.
This is a large amount of data not being used by services testing DNA. There are millions of SNP’s contained in your DNA. This type of testing only looks at specific variations. This requires between 100 and 300 AIM’s. This is a small fraction of the SNP’s differentiating DNA. This means if your test stated you are fifty percent European, it means only half of your SNP’s appear to be European. Another issue is certain markers used for ancestry information for any given test are only derived from either your Y chromosomes or your paternal line or your mitochondrial DNA or maternal line. When these markers are used, your test will be less accurate. Another flaw is the DNA testing services are obtaining DNA from the current populations in specific regions. This makes unsubstantiated conclusions that the people living in these areas hundreds of thousands of years in the past have had the same DNA for all these years.

The most important part of this process is registering your kit before shipping it. All five services require this, and if you don't do it, you won't be able to access your results. This requirement is to protect your privacy—your name won't appear on the kit or the results—and to easily track your kit as it goes through the process. Of course, when you sign up for an account with these services, your identity will be associated with it, but the sample and any reports stored on the service's end will just have a unique barcode.
If the company responsible for running your test is sold, whatever you signed loses significance due to the privacy policies of the company. Despite most of these privacy policies stating they will notify you of any changes, you would have to keep in constant contact with the company to ensure you were actually aware of these changes. The people willing to do this would be far and few between. Unfortunately, even if your name is not located within the database, this does not mean other databases cannot be used to determine your identity. In one specific case, a woman had a DNA test run. She found out she had a half-sibling. Although she was very excited about this news, this type of information would devastate numerous individuals.
AncestryDNA, 23andMe, HomeDNA, Living DNA, and MyHeritage DNA all provide reports of your ethnicity, some showing maps of where your ancestors lived along with information about the particular countries and regions. National Geographic goes further back, pinpointing where in Africa your ancestors came from and tracing migration patterns through to near-present times. It's less about your personal genetic makeup and more about who your ancestors were and how you're connected to the beginning of civilization.

DNA tests offer a wealth of insights into your connections to family, history and geographical locations. They both entertain and encourage you to dig into what you know about yourself. The tests make great gifts to bring you closer to your family and involve you and your family in the development of a cutting-edge science at the same time. Beyond that, the information is extremely useful for adoptees, people looking for lost relatives, genealogists and for medical science. 


The companies providing ancestry DNA tests are making most of their money from selling the genetic information as opposed to running the tests. Companies purchase this information to increase the size of their genetic databases. Nearly half the companies selling ancestry information are selling to more than just one company. These are sometimes pharmaceutical companies attempting to understand how specific human genome sections can help develop new drugs. Certain mutations will impact the effectiveness of these drugs. The original DNA sample is only destroyed by roughly ten percent of these companies. Most companies keep or sell the sample. This means it is both your data and saliva being sold.
On all platforms except for National Geographic, you can initiate a search for relatives, though some services let you upload your National Geographic results for further analysis. The software continually searches for DNA matches as more people share their results. This feature may be useful if you're building a family tree or looking for relatives you've never met; otherwise, it may more of a nuisance. You can opt in or out at any time, and the DNA service doesn't share your contact information. Relatives can message you through the software, though. If you already use genealogy software, you may be able to download your results and upload them into your preferred program. Otherwise, AncestryDNA and others featured here have family tree software that you can easily link.
Most of this trait data tells you things you already know, like your hair and eye color, but it is fun to see them compared to your genetic relatives and the world at large. We also found it fascinating to learn more about how these physical traits are genetically determined. For example, finger length ratio is determined by hormonal exposure in the womb, with higher testosterone exposure resulting in a better chance of having a longer ring finger. 23andMe’s Health report for finger length ratio looks at 15 gene markers to estimate your likelihood of having longer ring fingers or index fingers.
Looking at your raw DNA file might not give you any useful information unless you’re looking for a specific marker. You can also upload the file into a third-party DNA databases for information or results beyond what’s available from your testing company. This process is not without risks, as your DNA testing company only ensures the security of your personal information in its own environment. Once you download the file, you’re responsible for the file’s security. However, uploading your raw DNA to a third party database isn’t inherently unsafe — just be cautious.
There are two questions I would want answered through DNA testing. I never knew my mother but was told my great grandfather was “full blooded Cherokee Indian” and my six year old grandson is told by father “he is direct descendent of the Zulu nation”. Their words! Which DNA testing company would be able to answer these questions? I’m a little confused with the info presented. Thank you!

The spit is for one of the home genetic-testing kits I’m sampling. A growing number of these kits (brands such as 23andMe, DNAFit, Thriva, MyHeritage DNA, and Orig3n) promise to unlock the mystery of your genomes, variously explaining everything from ancestry, residual Neanderthal variants, “bioinformatics” for fitness, weight loss and skincare, to more random genetic predispositions, denoting, say, the dimensions of your earlobes or the consistency of your earwax.
×