And that’s where it starts getting interesting, because then we can start comparing that genetic signature to the results from other men who share the same surname but don’t appear on our family tree. If the matches are close, then we can start thinking “is there a common ancestor for these families another generation or two back? Are the families linked in some way?”. Depending on what we already know about either family group, it can help target the paper research to get those families linked, or take us back another generation or two.

McCartney says that anxious people often contact her, saying they wished they hadn’t done the tests. “These companies often say that it’s worth it for the helpful advice. But I can give you really good advice right now without seeing a single test result: be active, have lots of social networks, do work you enjoy, try not to smoke or drink too much, don’t be overweight or underweight, eat lots of fresh fruit and vegetables. Nobody needs to get tests done to get that kind of basic lifestyle advice.”

The DNA test thing is a scam as the results cannot have precision. I know where my recent ancestors came from and wanted to “test a DNA test”. My ancestry is 3/4 Spanish Valencian and 1/4 Spanish Ibizean (Ibiza): I have family papers and village names for my recent ancestors: they all have typical Spanish/Catalan names and I expected this to be reflected in my results.
Men have an X and a Y (chromosome) that are paired together. Women don’t have the Y, they just have two X’s. A child’s genes come from a mix up and recombining of the two parents. So a girl child will still end up with two X’s but some bits of them will come from the father’s X and some from the mother’s. A boy child on the other hand may have some bits of X from both mother and father, but his Y will have just come purely from his father – virtually unchanged. That makes Y-DNA such an exciting possibility for genealogy where you want to follow the paternal (surname) line. You could expect that Y-DNA will therefore pass virtually unchanged from father to son through the generations, meaning that the Y-DNA of a man’s g-g-g-g-grandfather will look very much like that of his own Y-DNA – with some little changes.
Findmypast & Living DNA are excited about the opportunities this partnership creates for everyone from serious genealogists to those just starting to explore their family history. As we focus on the best of British and Irish family history, we are committed to continue making improvements to the Findmypast DNA test to make it possible to not only discover where your ancestors came from, but learn their amazing stories too.
AncestryDNA is a cutting edge DNA testing service that utilises some of the latest autosomal testing technology to revolutionise the way you discover your family history. This service combines advanced DNA science with the world’s largest online family history resource to predict your genetic ethnicity and help you find new family connections. It maps ethnicity going back multiple generations and provides insight into such possibilities as: what region of Europe are my ancestors from, or am I likely to have East Asian heritage? AncestryDNA can also help identify relationships with unknown relatives through a dynamic list of DNA matches.
The trick for collecting a saliva sample is to give yourself plenty of time to create enough spit to fill your tube to the fill line (not including any bubbles). You should not eat or drink anything for at least an hour before collecting your sample, so it’s best to plan to collect your sample before eating. Our testers collected samples before lunch and found that thinking about the upcoming meal made saliva production easier, particularly as we collected multiple samples. Planning ahead and making sure you stay hydrated before you collect a saliva sample helps as well.

Below we have included both a quick comparison chart that looks at each DNA testing option side by side and a detailed breakdown of each section in that chart. We’ve covered Family Tree DNA, MyHeritage DNA, AncestryDNA and 23andMe in our comparison because these four companies are the main trusted providers of genetic genealogy tests in the current market.
A. As stated above, the NHS in the UK does not offer genetic testing for establishing biological relationships. Here at DNA Clinics, we pride ourselves on the clinical and ethical approach we provide for our DNA testing service. DNA Clinics may consider offering free DNA testing to individuals or families who consent to having their 'story' and experience of the DNA testing process published or reported in the media. This will only be considered for appropriate situations. Please call 0800 988 7107 for further information.
If you opt in to 23andMe’s family matching feature, you can connect with other 23andMe users with similar genes. This feature lets you view your matched relative’s display name, sex, profile photo, percent of DNA shared, number of DNA segments shared, relatives in common and haplogroups. The interface also estimates how closely you are related to each match. It’s very easy to connect with your matches on the website, and you can request more information by inviting them to share DNA reports.
In order to truly understand what a DNA estimate is, we have to get a little bit scientific.  The DNA testing companies use something called “sample populations” in order to give you your ethnicity estimate.  Their laboratories compare your DNA with that of thousands of people from all over the world.  In order to become a part of the same population, the participants would have needed to prove that they and their ancestors have lived in the same geographic area for several generations.  Their DNA is then grouped by geographic area.
Good explanation, but I was a little distressed by the part of the analogy that says people know what work to do because "someone tells us." That statement makes people sound like robots and that we do not make decisions on our own. Maybe this is lost on me because I work for myself, but this paints the picture of a chain of people telling other people what to do and everyone following blindly. Something to think about when discussing this concept with children! Humans have free will... :)
TTR-related hereditary amyloidosis is often managed by treating the symptoms through medications or surgical intervention. However, some recently approved medications work by decreasing the production of the TTR protein, which makes it less likely to build up in the body's tissues and organs. In addition, most of the TTR protein is produced in the liver, and liver transplants have been beneficial for some patients. Scientists are currently working on other treatment options for this condition.
The components of the STR profile are represented as data consisting of a series of peaks. For each location (locus) along the DNA molecule there will usually be two peaks, one from each parent, representing STR components (alleles) with differing numbers of repeats. If an allele with the same number of repeats is inherited from both parents, only one peak will be present.
FTDNA offers Y-DNA (y chromosome, fatherline, men only) and mtDNA (mitochondrial, motherline, everyone) tests. These are separate offerings from the Family Finder test and can be very detailed, depending on the test and option you choose. 23andMe offers mtDNA and Y-DNA as part of their main Ancestry offering, but the results are more limited. Read more about these types of tests here.
HomeDNA has the simplest DNA extraction process; just swab each cheek twice with a cotton swab, and place the swabs in the included envelope. The National Geographic Genographic Project sent a scraper that you use on each cheek for 45 seconds, and then place in a vial with stabilizing liquid. MyHeritage DNA has a similar process. 23andMe and AncestryDNA require that you spit into a tube up to the fill line (harder than it sounds), and ship it back with stabilization liquid. Most of the services said not to eat, drink, or smoke for 30 minutes to an hour prior to testing to get the best possible sample.
test didn’t even show that I had Polish genes in me which Sandusky is Polish. Also my father had native American blood in him and that didn’t show up . I wasn’t happy with the out come of the D.N.A. test. I think all of the test are like that If yours is not the same. I took mine though ancestry.com. I am on a fixed income and I can’t afford paying a lot more of money.That is why I signed for you site.
Because it is a genetic condition, hereditary hemochromatosis is present at birth. Many people with this condition never develop iron overload. Of those who do develop iron overload, only a small number develop symptoms. If men develop symptoms, they typically appear between 40 and 60 years of age. Women rarely develop symptoms, and when they do it tends to be after menopause.
AncestryDNA recently updated their service, adding new regions and adjusting their algorithm to make their ethnicity estimates more accurate. You're not alone in being a bit bewildered, since plenty of people have had their results change unexpectedly. As genetic ancestry analysis is a relatively recent science and is improving all the time, your results will become more accurate as more people enter the Ancestry database, allowing them to hone their algorithm accordingly.

I once heard someone explain DNA as being like a cake recipe book in a library. You can take the book out of the library and even unravel it by taking out the pages. You follow the cake recipes inside the book but when ever you make the cake it never turns out quite the same way twice. When you've finished you have to return the recipe book to the library because that is where its stored. Made sense to me at the time
test didn’t even show that I had Polish genes in me which Sandusky is Polish. Also my father had native American blood in him and that didn’t show up . I wasn’t happy with the out come of the D.N.A. test. I think all of the test are like that If yours is not the same. I took mine though ancestry.com. I am on a fixed income and I can’t afford paying a lot more of money.That is why I signed for you site.
Living DNA and Findmypast are British companies joining forces to combine cutting-edge science with traditional family history research methods. We’ve made every effort to find a DNA company to partner with that provides the most benefit for those looking to explore their British and Irish roots. Living DNA's test results provide a regional breakdown that perfectly complements our unrivalled collection of British and Irish historical records. It’s this powerful combination that makes this partnership the perfect marriage of science and history.
It should be said that if these Family Finder tools sound like a good way to add to your family tree, the majority of the matches you’ll be shown will be 3rd cousins or more distant, and it can take a significant amount of research to place them on your tree. That said, if you’re prepared to contact your matches and try to piece together your familial connection, using the Family Finder feature can be lots of fun and a great way to make friends all over the world!

For the uninformed, this is the best discussion on the subject of DNA that I have ever seen. I have been trying to determine who my great great grandfather is for years. I’ve tested with Ancestry and Family Tree DNA, hired ProGenealogists with Ancestry (twice), and still can’t determine who he is. I truly don’t know where to go now. The genealogist that consults with Finding your Roots works for a company that doesn’t do individual research. Who else does the genetic genealogist research that they do?
Lets suppose, as we have in the Sinnott/Sennett one name study, we have a whole lot of families who all believe their common ancestor came from Co Wexford, but the paper trail for conventional genealogy research has dwindled away, or we suspect that John and James who emigrated to the US about the same time were brothers but there is no documentation to prove it – genealogical DNA studies can now be used to show whether its possible that two families (that are at the moment quite separate on paper) are actually related and have a common ancestor. And no, we don’t have to go digging up g-g-g-g-grandfather John to get his DNA – remember, he passed it on to his son, and his son’s son, and so on to the present day. So we find a living male descendant and they get their Y-DNA analysed. That gives us a pretty good indication of the genetic signature for the whole family tree (well, the male side, anyway). If we want to check it, we find a distant cousin of the first person who tested and get their DNA analysed. If its a very close match, then bingo – we know the Y-DNA genetic signature (and whats known as a haplogroup) for our whole family group.
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