DNA profiling isn’t exclusive to human DNA. Animals also have genetic markers in their DNA which can be used to build up a profile for DNA identification or determining parentage. The most common animals that this is used for are dogs. Similarly to human DNA profiling, dog DNA profiling uses 10-20 markers in order to build up a profile that can be used to identify your dog if it is ever lost or there is some kind of ownership dispute. Companies that offer this service will often include the profile in the form of a certificate, with details about your dog along with its DNA profile. It should also be said that these companies tend to store your dog’s profile in their database, so you that you can check back with them if you ever need to.
Lets suppose, as we have in the Sinnott/Sennett one name study, we have a whole lot of families who all believe their common ancestor came from Co Wexford, but the paper trail for conventional genealogy research has dwindled away, or we suspect that John and James who emigrated to the US about the same time were brothers but there is no documentation to prove it – genealogical DNA studies can now be used to show whether its possible that two families (that are at the moment quite separate on paper) are actually related and have a common ancestor. And no, we don’t have to go digging up g-g-g-g-grandfather John to get his DNA – remember, he passed it on to his son, and his son’s son, and so on to the present day. So we find a living male descendant and they get their Y-DNA analysed. That gives us a pretty good indication of the genetic signature for the whole family tree (well, the male side, anyway). If we want to check it, we find a distant cousin of the first person who tested and get their DNA analysed. If its a very close match, then bingo – we know the Y-DNA genetic signature (and whats known as a haplogroup) for our whole family group.
A. DNA Clinics do not offer free DNA testing. The service in the UK for establishing genetic biological relationships is predominantly carried out by the private sector. The NHS does not offer DNA testing for paternity or other relationships. Companies offering free DNA testing are falsely advertising the service. DNA Clinics provide the DNA test kit free of charge, with payment for the test due on return of your samples.
Prices range from £100 to £200 for a basic DNA profile, but it’s worth mentioning that the cost largely depends on what you intend to do with it. One of the major factors that you need to consider, and which significantly impacts the cost, is whether you want your DNA profile to be legally admissible or not. Legal DNA profiles cost more than peace of mind versions, but if there’s a chance that your profile will be used in legal proceedings, it’s worth paying extra for.

One of the most popular reasons for doing a DNA test is to determine ethnicity.  Many people start out on their DNA journey trying to learn about their ethnicity and end up discovering new family members, or learning something really cool about their family history.  Is there such a thing as a DNA test for ethnicity, and if so, which one is the best?
A. DNA Clinics do not offer free DNA testing. The service in the UK for establishing genetic biological relationships is predominantly carried out by the private sector. The NHS does not offer DNA testing for paternity or other relationships. Companies offering free DNA testing are falsely advertising the service. DNA Clinics provide the DNA test kit free of charge, with payment for the test due on return of your samples.

Although, I have absolutely no British or Irish ancestry, I found my results extremely satisfying. I particularly appreciate that living DNA gives you a lot of ways to view your data. You can see your ancestry results as color-coded dots filling up a person’s silhouette, on a map, as a pie chart or on a timeline. All the graphics present the same set of data, but each has its own appeal. Within each graphic, you can also choose to view global or regional matches and cautious, standard or complete estimates, which each have a different level of detail and certainty.
Most companies will use algorithms to compare the genetic variants uniquely associated to a reference population with those identified in the person being tested. This can help them exclude unlikely population groups from your ethnic mix, and ensure that the ethnic groups you’re shown to be composed of are more accurately reported. Although most companies will share the reference populations they use with their customers, they rarely provide information on the algorithms they’ve developed.
mtDNA Tests: These type of tests look at the DNA found in our cell’s mitochondria. Mitochondria is located in the cytoplasm of the cell (surrounding and separate from the nucleus where most DNA is found) and is therefore only inherited from your mother. This means that a mtDNA test can help you understand the ancestry of your maternal line only. The nature of this test option also limits it to the understanding of deep ancestry (not so helpful for genealogists)–although the more detailed the test, the more accurate and specific your results become. The most commonly used tests for this purpose can be found through Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) and they have a huge amount of helpful information on better understanding the science and genealogical significance of this method of genetic testing.
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