DNA fingerprinting is commonly used to compare DNA samples taken from the crime scene with those taken from suspects, to either prove or disprove their innocence. In the UK, 10 markers are analysed to produce DNA profiles from the samples taken in criminal investigations. These are then compared to (and stored in) the National DNA Database (NDNAD) to identify if there’s a match. This database currently contains DNA profiles for 10% of the UK population, along with the individuals’ names and ethnicities. Anyone who’s been arrested for a recordable offence has their information recorded on the database, unless they are found innocent or not charged – in these cases, the individuals’ biological samples and corresponding information is destroyed within six months of sample collection.
Most direct-to-consumer DNA test companies warn that the tests may reveal things you wish you didn’t know about your family. For example, you could find out that one of the people who raised you isn’t your biological parent or that there’s an entire branch of your family you didn’t know about. There isn’t a way to prepare for a shock like that, but you can opt out of a company’s family-matching services if you’d rather not know.

DNA test companies that use genotyping technology, including 23andMe and Ancestry, allow you to download your raw DNA file. A raw DNA file is usually a text file that contains all the information about your genetic code gleaned from the company’s examination of your DNA. This is comprised of several hundred thousand markers known as SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). Most raw files are organized into five columns: the SNP coded into an rsID number, the chromosome the SNP is located on, the location of the SNP on the chromosome and the two alleles for each SNP.


Our Ancestry Service helps you understand who you are, where your DNA comes from and your family story. We analyse, compile and distill your DNA information into reports on your Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Detail Reports, Maternal & Paternal Haplogroups, Neanderthal Ancestry, Your DNA Family and provide a DNA Relatives tool to enable you to connect with relatives who share similar DNA.
As it happens, most of the data on 23andMe seems harmless and fun. There are the “Neanderthal variants” (I have fewer of them than 58% of 23andMe customers, thank you very much), the bizarre earwax/earlobes-type data and, apparently, I have the muscle composition generally found in “elite athletes” (fancy). On the downside, my lineage isn’t as exotic as I’d hoped: 99.1% north-western Europe, of which 71% is British/Irish, with just 0.01% “Ashkenazi Jewish” to offset the genetic monotony. At £149, the 23andMe kit isn’t cheap and I’m quite tempted to demand a recount.
Is this a perfect method?  No, but it’s a good way to get a general idea about where your ancestors were from.  Genealogical DNA tests can tell you a lot about your ancestry going back 300-500 years in time, for the most part.  They can also tell you a little bit about your ancestry going even further back.  This is why comparing your DNA to those whose families have stayed in a particular area for a long time is a fairly accurate way to perform the estimate.

DNA tests offer a wealth of insights into your connections to family, history and geographical locations. They both entertain and encourage you to dig into what you know about yourself. The tests make great gifts to bring you closer to your family and involve you and your family in the development of a cutting-edge science at the same time. Beyond that, the information is extremely useful for adoptees, people looking for lost relatives, genealogists and for medical science. 

FTDNA has the most advanced tools for easily analyzing cousin matches as of now, although it is possible that MyHeritage DNA may catch up. They seem very eager to please customers at this point. FTDNA does fall short when it comes to the ability to sync with developed family trees however. This is certainly not intentional on their part, they have developed some great tools for this purpose, but FTDNA (unlike Ancestry and MyHeritage) does not provide record searches or an online family tree program for the purpose of genealogical research. For this reason they are inherently limited in this regard.
I’ve had the same experience, and so have many others. My mother’s family is all from Italy, and yet my results came back with NO Italian whatsoever. Another said there was. None of them report German as a result, which is quite strange since Germans are definitely a people! These DNA tests are subjective and based on human analysis. As we all know, humans make mistakes. At the end of it all, I’ve decided that I’ll just stick with the ancestry my grandparents told me about when they were alive.

The trick for collecting a saliva sample is to give yourself plenty of time to create enough spit to fill your tube to the fill line (not including any bubbles). You should not eat or drink anything for at least an hour before collecting your sample, so it’s best to plan to collect your sample before eating. Our testers collected samples before lunch and found that thinking about the upcoming meal made saliva production easier, particularly as we collected multiple samples. Planning ahead and making sure you stay hydrated before you collect a saliva sample helps as well.


I know that this article is old, but I have been interested in my ethnicity. I have a good idea of what ethnicity I am, but I like many people want a thorough DNA test. Now, it seems like Ancestry is the closest to what I am looking for. The only issue that I have with ALL of these DNA tests is privacy. I don’t like that they have the authority to keep my information for their own purpose. This is the reason why I won’t take any of these DNA tests, and as curious as I am, I want… Read more »
Please note that some of the links in this article are affiliate links. That means that if you decide to click on one of these links and buy a test Family History Daily may receive a small amount of revenue. This revenue helps us support the running of this site but it does not influence the information we have shared. Our goal, first and foremost, is to provide you with accurate information that will help you in your research. 
There are many things to think about when deciding whether genetic testing is right for you. Although these tests can provide important information about health risks, they can also be upsetting or raise questions about what the results mean. Genetic tests also have certain limitations that are important to understand. Your personal and family medical history, as well as your goals for testing, should all factor into your decisions about whether and how to test.
While FTDNA is currently the only company to offer an advanced and full featured chromosome browser (the ability to analyze your results and compare matches by chromosome), MyHeritage now offers a nice integration of a simple chromosome browser right on each match page. 23andMe does not offer a browser but does show your ethnicity “painted” on your chromosomes and Ancestry does not offer this service at all.

I have had my DNA done at ancestry.com & 23&me, ancestry.com & 23 are basically the same until it gets to the trace regions… ancestry says I am 1% Euro Jew which made since with my haplogroup K1a3a, but 23andme gave me .08% African, changed date when it occurred 2x went from East to West, then settled on “Sub African”, none of which I believe occurred due to my own research but if in fact I am either Euro Jew,(I think it is non-mixed Israelite/Hebrew, but whatever), and or if their is this .08 African, I’d like to know why ancestry did pick up on it, how sure they are at 23&me,(they can’t tell Irish from Brits or German from French but can go on & on about some supposed .08% makes no sense), BUT now that it has been said, I want to put it to rest… If either occurred can I confirm using the raw DNA I have from both? Shouldn’t both be able to say I am or am not Jew or African? I don’t care either way, but want to know what site would be able to answer this the best…. again I have raw data/dna from both ancestry.com & 23 & me. HELP 🙂 Thank you in advance.
Living DNA supports 80 geographical ancestry regions, 21 of which are located within Britain and Ireland alone, making it a great DNA test for people wanting to delve deep into their British heritage. Of course, it also covers 60 regions outside of the British Isles, and is expanding its efforts to bring the same level of detail to other world regions.
The trick for collecting a saliva sample is to give yourself plenty of time to create enough spit to fill your tube to the fill line (not including any bubbles). You should not eat or drink anything for at least an hour before collecting your sample, so it’s best to plan to collect your sample before eating. Our testers collected samples before lunch and found that thinking about the upcoming meal made saliva production easier, particularly as we collected multiple samples. Planning ahead and making sure you stay hydrated before you collect a saliva sample helps as well.
A few of the DNA tests we tested, including the National Geographic Geno 2.0, use genetic sequencing instead of genotyping. Sequencing is newer in the mainstream direct-to-consumer DNA testing market, as it used to cost more and take much longer to sequence a person’s DNA. Sequencing identifies the exact makeup of a certain piece of DNA – be it a short segment or the whole genome. The Helix tests sequence the Exome, which are the parts of the genome responsible for protein production, plus several other regions of interest. 
Please note that some of the links in this article are affiliate links. That means that if you decide to click on one of these links and buy a test Family History Daily may receive a small amount of revenue. This revenue helps us support the running of this site but it does not influence the information we have shared. Our goal, first and foremost, is to provide you with accurate information that will help you in your research. 
Direct-to-consumer DNA tests are still relatively new. The first ancestral DNA test launched in 2001 by FamilyTreeDNA, but companies didn’t start genotyping autosomal DNA until 2007. Still, tests and results have come a long way since then, with much lower prices and streamlined sample collection, registration and results. If you’re still on the fence about whether or not to buy a DNA ancestry test for yourself or as a gift, here are a few things to consider. 
Self-collection DNA test kits are a convenient and more affordable option. However, the support and advice you receive when making an appointment to have your DNA sample taken is invaluable and we will always recommend this option to you. To locate your nearest DNA testing clinic, pharmacy or mobile sample collection service please use the location search tool.
Living DNA supports 80 geographical ancestry regions, 21 of which are located within Britain and Ireland alone, making it a great DNA test for people wanting to delve deep into their British heritage. Of course, it also covers 60 regions outside of the British Isles, and is expanding its efforts to bring the same level of detail to other world regions.
For these reasons, mapping segments of your autosomal DNA to whole continents can be determined with a high level of certainty, but when you try to attribute these segments to specific tribes, regions or even countries, the certainty decreases. This is why some genetic ancestry companies will attribute a proportion of your DNA to areas such as ‘Eastern Europe’ or ‘Southern Asia’, instead of to specific countries.

Living DNA offers the best biogeographical ancestry analysis on the market for people with British ancestry and they are the only company to offer regional breakdowns. With the inclusion of Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroup information, this is a good all-round test for someone who wants an overview of their genetic ancestry. The test cannot currently be used for genealogical matching, though an autosomal matching service is promised for the future. As a late entrant to the market, Living DNA will start with a smaller database though the test is more likely to appeal to people in the UK, especially those who feel safer keeping their DNA data in Europe.


There are mixed reactions to the use of ancestry DNA databases in criminal cases. On one hand, the rise of readily-available DNA information for millions of people has led to the arrests of several suspects related to long-cold cases, including the arrest of the Golden State Killer. On the other hand, law enforcement accessing private databases of genetic information from consumers raises several questions regarding privacy and ethical issues.
First of all, what is DNA? The letters stand for Deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule encoding the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. Its structure was first described by Nobel Prize winners Crick and Watson in 1953. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.
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