Each DNA processing company divides the world into regions. One company has divided the world into 24 regions while another company has divided the same world into over 350 regions. This is why there is a noted disparity in the results that people are getting who have happened to use more than one company. results you have received are not necessarily wrong, just perhaps are not as finely sorted as you were maybe expecting.
If you want to keep things really simple then we recommend 23andMe as it offers the best all-round DNA testing kit. It offers a mix of everything including family matching, ancestry percentages and optional heath insights. If you’re more interested in your genealogy then the AncestryDNA kit provides more detail along a gene pool and family tree. The National Geographic Geno 2.0 DNA kit is the best kit for connecting your genes to history going back up to 100,000 years.
As stated at the start of this guide, each one of the main tests will provide you with easy-to-use reports and cousin matching that you can use in your genealogy research. You will need to carefully review the information provided in this guide to make a decision about which test is best for your particular needs. You may also choose to test with (or upload your results to) multiple companies.

The introduction of home DNA testing means that anyone who wants to can now order their own DNA profiling kit online, and one common reason is for DNA identification. This is often important for those who work in high risk jobs, in case there is an accident that means their body would need to be identified. For example, the US army requires all active service personnel to submit a DNA sample upon enrolment, primarily for the purpose of identification if they are killed in service. Not everyone who works in a high-risk profession is given this option by their employer, but individuals with dangerous jobs are free to buy their own DNA profile from a private testing company.

Living DNA supports 80 geographical ancestry regions, 21 of which are located within Britain and Ireland alone, making it a great DNA test for people wanting to delve deep into their British heritage. Of course, it also covers 60 regions outside of the British Isles, and is expanding its efforts to bring the same level of detail to other world regions.
These tests can reveal the migratory paths of your paternal and maternal ancestors after they left Africa 200,000 years ago. By studying the migratory route they took, this can help you identify the ethnic groups they may have been part of. That said, as your paternal line is your father’s father’s father etc., and as your maternal line is your mother’s mother’s mother etc.; your paternal and maternal ancestors represent a smaller and smaller proportion of your ancestry the further back you go (just one sixteenth of your total ancestry five generations ago). Therefore, tracing your migratory paths back thousands of years may provide insights, but they’re a poor means of exploring your ethnic mix.
Who knows how much of it made solid scientific sense? However, I have to confess that I rather enjoyed it on the level of an indulgent genome-oriented “pampering session”, just as I had a hoot with the ancestry/Neanderthal/earlobe data on 23andMe. Where Thriva is concerned, I also noted that it did advanced thyroid tests. Although such tests are available from the NHS, I’m hypothyroid myself and I know that sometimes it can be difficult and time-consuming getting tests repeated and it could be useful to be privately tested in this way.
A. Be aware of DNA tests advertised at this price. DNA Clinics have received calls from many anxious individuals who have had these DNA tests carried out for £59 only to realise that the test has been performed at an overseas non UK accredited laboratory. DNA Clinics most affordable test is a Peace of Mind Paternity DNA test available for £119 from www.homednapaternitytest.co.uk. Whilst this is more expensive than the £59 DNA test, you have the reassurance that all testing has been performed at Crystal Health ISO17025 accredited laboratory using strict chain of custody protocols.

There are many things to think about when deciding whether genetic testing is right for you. Although these tests can provide important information about health risks, they can also be upsetting or raise questions about what the results mean. Genetic tests also have certain limitations that are important to understand. Your personal and family medical history, as well as your goals for testing, should all factor into your decisions about whether and how to test.
You control your account privacy. Findmypast and Living DNA keep your data private unless you choose to share information, such as your family tree or DNA results. Your data is encrypted and stored on secure servers, only accessible by staff, vital service providers (such as our laboratory partners) and you. Living DNA has carefully chosen a European laboratory to conduct its DNA testing. Findmypast and Living DNA only disclose your data to third parties where we have appropriate agreements in place. For example, trusted third-party payment processing companies. Findmypast and Living DNA are ISO accredited for data and information security.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss among older adults. The disease results in damage to the central part of the retina (the macula), impairing vision needed for reading, driving, or even recognizing faces. This test includes the two most common variants associated with an increased risk of developing the condition.
Finally, if you happen to meet a special someone on DNA Romance and want to see what your future child together might look like, there’s BabyGlimpse by HumanCode. Like a very advanced Punnett square, BabyGlimpse compares your and your partner’s DNA to create a profile that examines which traits your offspring might inherit, including things like ancestral DNA, eye color and lactose intolerance.
Family Tree DNA (the longest running testing company) offers a well-established database of “cousins” and advanced tools for exploring your results. MyHeritage offers the ability to sync your results with your family tree research in a very unique way. Both are a good choice, but since every person’s needs are unique we suggest you read the full guide before deciding.

Rachel, it’s been a year since you posted your query. Perhaps you have your answers? In case not, here are a few suggestions. Since you are an adoptee, perhaps with no knowledge of your biological family, you probably are most interested in details there, while your ethnic makeup is a very minor concern and where most DNA services give similar results anyways. Maybe your goal is to locate your birth parents? If that’s all true, then buy an AncestryDNA kit, as they have 10 million DNA profiles in their database, which is more than all competitors combined. The more profiles to DNA match against the more matches you’ll get to your biological relatives. Next download your raw Ancestry DNA data, and then upload it for free into MyHeritage (2.5 million DNA profiles), FamilyTreeDNA (1 million DNA profiles), GEDmatch (1 million DNA profiles), LivingDNA (unknown database size), and DNA.land (0.15 million DNA profiles). That’s almost 5 million more DNA profiles to match against. Combined with AncestryDNA that’s about 15 million profiles. If lucky you may match to a 2nd cousin or closer relative which with luck could lead to your birth parents, definitely will match to a few if not many 3rd cousins and 1000s of 4th or more distant cousins. If you change your mind and decide purchasing a second DNA kit is worth the expense, then buy a 23andMe DNA kit, which adds 5 million more DNA profiles to match against. Hope these suggestions were useful. Good luck.

Testers appreciated the amount of information and context given with each report. For example, the regional ancestry report matches your DNA to broad world regions on a map, but it also compares your DNA to two more-specific reference populations. My regions were Northeastern Asia and South China Sea, which fit the Korean and Japanese reference populations. Another tester was matched to 11 geographic regions throughout Europe, North America and West Asia, and they were matched to Argentinian and Puerto Rican reference populations.

I like that with just one exception - the copying of DNA is remarkably accurate (equivalent of copying out encyclopaedia britannica several times with no mistakes) and Protein synthesis is even more accurate. If this weren't true, the organism would swiftly die. Variation, both inter and intra species, is caused by quite different processes - namely crossing over and random assortment of chromsomes during meiosis and then recombination during fertilisation. But I like the storage and pages part of the analogy
One of the most popular reasons for doing a DNA test is to determine ethnicity.  Many people start out on their DNA journey trying to learn about their ethnicity and end up discovering new family members, or learning something really cool about their family history.  Is there such a thing as a DNA test for ethnicity, and if so, which one is the best?

Each DNA processing company divides the world into regions. One company has divided the world into 24 regions while another company has divided the same world into over 350 regions. This is why there is a noted disparity in the results that people are getting who have happened to use more than one company. results you have received are not necessarily wrong, just perhaps are not as finely sorted as you were maybe expecting.


Although reference populations are the primary method by which companies calculate your ethnic mix, they don’t represent actual living populations. Instead, they’re a theoretical group who share a unique set of genetic variants, believed to belong to a distinct ethnic group in the past. This is why an ethnicity DNA test will show you that you’re a mix of different ethnicities, instead of placing you in a single ethnic group.
23andMe is a bit different in that many people have tested with their company for the health results and are not necessarily interested in genealogy or matching with relatives, even if they opted into this feature. That doesn’t mean you won’t get a good response when reaching out, but it may be less common than with the other testing companies. Recently 23andMe has been placing more focus on genealogical testing, however, so this is may be shifting.
Most companies will use algorithms to compare the genetic variants uniquely associated to a reference population with those identified in the person being tested. This can help them exclude unlikely population groups from your ethnic mix, and ensure that the ethnic groups you’re shown to be composed of are more accurately reported. Although most companies will share the reference populations they use with their customers, they rarely provide information on the algorithms they’ve developed.

When you get your 23andMe results, it takes you to an easy-to-navigate dashboard with your ancestry composition report front and center. Testers reported both high levels of confidence in the accuracy and high rates of satisfaction with the contents and detail of their results. The service breaks down the world into 171 populations, based off its reference panel of 10,000 individuals with known ancestry. Some of these population groups are a tad redundant. For example, I received hits for South Korean, Korean, Broadly Japanese & Korean, and Broadly East Asian in my report, which all represent a similar area but show different levels of certainty. Scrolling down your ancestry summary, you can also view your ancestry timeline. This estimates how many generations back your most recent ancestor from each of your matched regions probably lived. You can also view your ancestry composition mapped out on chromosomes. This view is interesting, as you can change the level of confidence from speculative to conservative, which equates a match percentage of 50 to 90 percent.
There are mixed reactions to the use of ancestry DNA databases in criminal cases. On one hand, the rise of readily-available DNA information for millions of people has led to the arrests of several suspects related to long-cold cases, including the arrest of the Golden State Killer. On the other hand, law enforcement accessing private databases of genetic information from consumers raises several questions regarding privacy and ethical issues.
After collecting spit and cheek cells, we mailed all of the tests at the same time and waited for results, noting all communications from the company in the meantime and how long it took each service to notify us that results were ready to view. We collected data based on testers’ impressions of their results, each service’s features and extras, how easy it was to use and navigate the service’s website, along with several other factors. We added this testing data to rigorous research and information gleaned from conversations with representatives from Ancestry, 23andMe, MyHeritageDNA, LivingDNA, Humancode (now owned by Helix) and 24genetics. 

I was interested in the ethnicity test provided by African Ancestry because of their claim to be able to place your ancestry in a current African country or region. However after reading multiple reviews, I'm hesitant to spend $300 to find out my ancestors are "West African" or from Sub Sahara Africa. Is there any company whose test can place Ancestry within a specific region of African?


The core feature of all ethnicity DNA tests is to show you a breakdown of the ethnic groups who have contributed to your autosomal DNA, normally as a list, pie chart, and/or map in an online account. It’s understood that these tests give you a picture of your ethnic heritage from the past five to six generations, and this is because the number of your ancestors increases exponentially the further back you go.
Most of this trait data tells you things you already know, like your hair and eye color, but it is fun to see them compared to your genetic relatives and the world at large. We also found it fascinating to learn more about how these physical traits are genetically determined. For example, finger length ratio is determined by hormonal exposure in the womb, with higher testosterone exposure resulting in a better chance of having a longer ring finger. 23andMe’s Health report for finger length ratio looks at 15 gene markers to estimate your likelihood of having longer ring fingers or index fingers.

There is currently no known cure. People with AAT deficiency are encouraged to avoid smoking and consider getting certain vaccinations. For those with symptoms, treatment focuses on management of lung and liver problems. Direct replacement of the AAT protein into the blood may be used to slow the progression of lung disease. Lung and liver transplants may be beneficial in some cases.
If you’re more interested in learning about the relatives you already know you have, 23andMe has a few unique tools that let you compare your DNA with your children, parents and grandparents. If multiple people in your family tree want to get tested, fill out a GrandTree, which shows you which segments of DNA you inherit from each of your tested parents or grandparents. While nowhere near as comprehensive as AncestryDNA’s family tree and genealogy tools, 23andMe’s more nuclear approach to family genetics is a great option that lets you explore your genetic relationship with more immediate relations.

I had two tests . One FamilytreeDNA said I was Notrhwestern European – mostly British Isles on the mothers side but then 45% Non-northern Euro. – Greek and Turkish, etc. But 23 and me said nearly all Northern European with 1% Askanazi. Huh/ Same sipt in the old jar. Somebody’s wrong! Since I know nothing about my father’s side the autosomal test was all I had for any clues at all. Kind of worthless at this point.
While 23andMe does offer DNA relative matching and some tools to compare your genes to your DNA relatives, it doesn’t have robust genealogy tools, as its focus rests more in personal discovery and exploration. To that end, 23andMe has an optional health upgrade that provides reports on DNA traits like hair color and genetic predispositions to certain illnesses and diseases. It is the only DNA test with FDA approval for testing genes linked to conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. If you’re interested in the health portion of the test, we recommend buying the Health + Ancestry test together, as this option costs less than upgrading later.
The DNA tests we reviewed either require a saliva or cheek cell sample. Saliva-collecting kits include a tube that’s marked with a fill line and sample number. The tube often has a liquid-filled cap with a stabilizer that acts as a preservative to protect your DNA from degradation during transport. Cheek swab sample kits include one or two swabs for scraping the insides of your cheeks for 30 seconds to a minute to collect cheek cells and some sort of container to place the used swabs into after collection. This prevents contamination. Our testers found upsides to both types of kits but generally preferred saliva collection kits, even though they took longer.
Hi Mark, can you tell me which test my mother in law would need to take, for me to find genealogical information on her paternal line? She never knew who her birth father was apart from the fact that he was an American serviceman stationed in England after WW1. She has no siblings. Is there a test suited for this? As she is nearing 100 years old, it would need to be a cheek swab test. Would it be beneficial to have my husband tested instead? Thanks.
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The introduction of home DNA testing means that anyone who wants to can now order their own DNA profiling kit online, and one common reason is for DNA identification. This is often important for those who work in high risk jobs, in case there is an accident that means their body would need to be identified. For example, the US army requires all active service personnel to submit a DNA sample upon enrolment, primarily for the purpose of identification if they are killed in service. Not everyone who works in a high-risk profession is given this option by their employer, but individuals with dangerous jobs are free to buy their own DNA profile from a private testing company.
Starting at $79, the company's DNA test kit is competitively priced and covers the basics: A simple cheek swab will give you an analysis of your ethnic origins and the identification of relatives who share your DNA. In addition to MyHeritage's free basic subscription, which will let you assemble a family tree up to 250 people, there are other packages that accommodate larger trees, advanced DNA features, and more robust research tools. The company allows you to upload test data from other companies.
Product Price Overall Rating Cost Ancestry Results Ease of Use Online Database Features Upgrade Option Available Geographic Regions Database Size Tester Confidence in Results Tester Satisfaction Score Overall Experience Score Sample Type Sample Collection and Registration Score Result Access and Interpretation Score Turnaround Time (Days) App Genetic Relative Connections Online Family Trees Upload RAW Data Download RAW Data
DNA is found in most cells of the body, including white blood cells, semen, hair roots and body tissue. Traces of DNA can also be detected in body fluids, such as saliva and perspiration because they also contain epithelial cells. Forensic scientists and Police officers collect samples of DNA from crime scenes. DNA can also be collected directly from a person using a mouth swab (which collects inner cheek cells). Find out more in the article Crime scene evidence.
Similarly, mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, is used by direct-to-consumer DNA tests to trace your direct maternal lineage and determine maternal haplogroups. While most DNA lives in your cells' nuclei, mtDNA lives in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cells' powerhouses – their 37 genes are necessary for cellular energy production and respiration. Previous research suggested that mtDNA is inherited directly from your mother, but a recent study found that biparental mtDNA may be more common. This discovery may affect maternal haplogroup testing in DNA tests in the future, but for now, it’s safe to assume your results are correct.
McCartney says that anxious people often contact her, saying they wished they hadn’t done the tests. “These companies often say that it’s worth it for the helpful advice. But I can give you really good advice right now without seeing a single test result: be active, have lots of social networks, do work you enjoy, try not to smoke or drink too much, don’t be overweight or underweight, eat lots of fresh fruit and vegetables. Nobody needs to get tests done to get that kind of basic lifestyle advice.”
There's a lot you can learn from a DNA test. In addition to deepening your understanding of ancestry, some services will introduce you to relatives around the world or shed light on your predisposition to specific health issues and diseases. Here we present to you our roundup of the nine top DNA testing kits and services -- what they offer, how they work and how much they cost. 
23andMe is a bit different in that many people have tested with their company for the health results and are not necessarily interested in genealogy or matching with relatives, even if they opted into this feature. That doesn’t mean you won’t get a good response when reaching out, but it may be less common than with the other testing companies. Recently 23andMe has been placing more focus on genealogical testing, however, so this is may be shifting.
Most of the services we tested use genotyping to read your DNA. Genotyping looks for specific markers in your genetic code. For something like ancestry testing, genotyping is effective because it identifies known variants in your DNA. Scientifically speaking, genotyping’s weakness is that it can only recognize previously identified markers. This is one reason DNA tests’ accuracy relies so heavily on the DNA database size; there must be enough information available and identified genetic variants in the database to recognize new customers’ markers.
In addition to its ancestry test, 23andMe also offers a cool health upgrade. The upgrade costs $125 if you add it after getting your ancestry results, so we recommend splurging and buying the $199 Health + Ancestry kit from the start and it often goes on sale. It was approved as the first direct-to-consumer genetic screening service by the FDA in 2015 for certain conditions including Parkinson’s disease and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Many of the service’s 87 health reports are much more lighthearted, however, including information about your probability of disliking cilantro, getting bit by mosquitos or having a longer index finger than ring finger.

People with hereditary hemochromatosis are typically monitored for symptoms or complications. Iron overload related to hereditary hemochromatosis is a treatable condition. In some patients, having blood drawn on a regular basis can help lower iron levels. People with iron overload are encouraged to avoid drinking alcohol to minimize liver damage and to limit intake of iron-rich food.
There is one really, really important thing to know about this estimate, however.  Each child inherits 50% of their DNA from each parent.  That means that 50% of their parents’ DNA does NOT get passed down to the child.  This can mean that a child of a 100% Eastern European person will only show 50% Eastern European DNA, and their grandchild will only show 25%, and their great-grandchild 12.5% – in a perfect scenario.
DNA tests give you an educated estimate of your ethnic makeup and help inform genealogical research by verifying existing family trees and informing future avenues of investigation. Additionally, there's a possibility you'll find living DNA matches - distant cousins and other relations - who could share their family history with you to build a bigger picture of your family tree.
Many DNA databases, including Ancestry, 23andMe and MyHeritage DNA, have family search features, which match your DNA with that of potential relatives. These features help users searching for family, including adoptees and children conceived through sperm donations. Almost every DNA testing service we interviewed for this article had a story ready about how its service facilitated a heartwarming family reunion. Like these from Ancestry, this one from MyHeritage and this one from 23andMe. Because many DNA services also have resources like family tree builders, the tests work in tandem with genealogical research.
When asked about how database size affects ancestry results, David Nicholson, co-founder of Living DNA, told us, “The tests absolutely rely on the reference database. If you have Polish ancestry but there are no people in the database who are Polish, then what the test will do is show what the next closest group is next to Polish, like German or Eastern European ancestry.” 

I used 23&me, (who has around 80 geographical regions) and while I was disappointed with the nationality results, it was only because I thought they were a bit vague – but in all honesty, I didn’t really know what to expect, so there’s that. Now understanding a little more about the limitations of results from any company, have no problem with what I received.
Molly K. McLaughlin is a New York-based writer and editor with more than a decade of experience covering technology. She has tested and reviewed all sorts of software, mobile apps, and gadgets. Before launching her freelance business, she was an editor at PC Magazine, covering consumer electronics, followed by a stint at ConsumerSearch.com, a revie... See Full Bio
As discussed earlier, in order to determine the ethnicities present in your genetic make-up, genetic ancestry companies can analyse your autosomal DNA to seek out the genetic variants uniquely associated to certain population groups. These groups are known as ‘reference populations’, and they’ve been constructed by sampling the DNA of modern populations around the world, as well as from human remains at various archaeological sites. By identifying these genetic variants in your genetic code, companies can report on the groups that have contributed to your DNA.

Is this a perfect method?  No, but it’s a good way to get a general idea about where your ancestors were from.  Genealogical DNA tests can tell you a lot about your ancestry going back 300-500 years in time, for the most part.  They can also tell you a little bit about your ancestry going even further back.  This is why comparing your DNA to those whose families have stayed in a particular area for a long time is a fairly accurate way to perform the estimate.
Self-collection DNA test kits are a convenient and more affordable option. However, the support and advice you receive when making an appointment to have your DNA sample taken is invaluable and we will always recommend this option to you. To locate your nearest DNA testing clinic, pharmacy or mobile sample collection service please use the location search tool.
We have zeroed in on autosomal tests only. These tests are used to give you the ancestry percentages and cousin matching most people are seeking. If you are interested in YDNA (paternal line only, for men) or mtDNA (maternal line only) you can find these tests at Family Tree DNA. 23andMe also offers limited motherline and fatherline results as part of this main ancestry test.
There is one really, really important thing to know about this estimate, however.  Each child inherits 50% of their DNA from each parent.  That means that 50% of their parents’ DNA does NOT get passed down to the child.  This can mean that a child of a 100% Eastern European person will only show 50% Eastern European DNA, and their grandchild will only show 25%, and their great-grandchild 12.5% – in a perfect scenario.

Testers appreciated the amount of information and context given with each report. For example, the regional ancestry report matches your DNA to broad world regions on a map, but it also compares your DNA to two more-specific reference populations. My regions were Northeastern Asia and South China Sea, which fit the Korean and Japanese reference populations. Another tester was matched to 11 geographic regions throughout Europe, North America and West Asia, and they were matched to Argentinian and Puerto Rican reference populations.


DNA profiling isn’t exclusive to human DNA. Animals also have genetic markers in their DNA which can be used to build up a profile for DNA identification or determining parentage. The most common animals that this is used for are dogs. Similarly to human DNA profiling, dog DNA profiling uses 10-20 markers in order to build up a profile that can be used to identify your dog if it is ever lost or there is some kind of ownership dispute. Companies that offer this service will often include the profile in the form of a certificate, with details about your dog along with its DNA profile. It should also be said that these companies tend to store your dog’s profile in their database, so you that you can check back with them if you ever need to.
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