These tests can reveal the migratory paths of your paternal and maternal ancestors after they left Africa 200,000 years ago. By studying the migratory route they took, this can help you identify the ethnic groups they may have been part of. That said, as your paternal line is your father’s father’s father etc., and as your maternal line is your mother’s mother’s mother etc.; your paternal and maternal ancestors represent a smaller and smaller proportion of your ancestry the further back you go (just one sixteenth of your total ancestry five generations ago). Therefore, tracing your migratory paths back thousands of years may provide insights, but they’re a poor means of exploring your ethnic mix.
This is the ‘Out of Africa’ theory, and it’s reflected in our DNA which shows that we’re all descended from ‘Y chromosomal Adam’ (our earliest common male ancestor) and ‘mitochondrial eve’ (our earliest common female ancestor). Our DNA can also show us the migratory paths that our ancestors took after leaving Africa in the intervening millennia, to get to where they settled in the thousand year period before the era of mass migration circa 1850.
DNA profiling can also be useful for those who suspect there may be inheritance disputes over their estate once they have passed away. It provides a record that can be referred to long after someone’s death, even when all physical traces of DNA have gone. Therefore, if there is an unexpected claim for inheritance from an alleged relative, your DNA profile can be compared to that of the claimant to prove or disprove a biological relationship and the inheritance rights.
Product Price Overall Rating Cost Ancestry Results Ease of Use Online Database Features Upgrade Option Available Geographic Regions Database Size Tester Confidence in Results Tester Satisfaction Score Overall Experience Score Sample Type Sample Collection and Registration Score Result Access and Interpretation Score Turnaround Time (Days) App Genetic Relative Connections Online Family Trees Upload RAW Data Download RAW Data
Although the project states that most participants won’t receive any useful information, patients will be told if something is found in their genome that is relevant to the treatment, explanation or diagnosis of their condition. They can also choose to learn if they have a genetic risk factor for another disease, such as the BRCA1 gene mutation that can cause breast cancer. Genomics England will only look for risk factors that are linked to a disease that can be treated or prevented. Untreatable conditions, such as Alzheimer’s, are not looked for.
Think of all the words you can spell. I bet there are loads. But each word is made using the same selection of letters. Yes, sometimes we leave letters out, sometimes we repeat letters, but we always have the same selection of letters. Depending on how we arrange the letters of the alphabet we can make new words. The same is true in the four letter alphabet of DNA.

Self-collection DNA test kits are a convenient and more affordable option. However, the support and advice you receive when making an appointment to have your DNA sample taken is invaluable and we will always recommend this option to you. To locate your nearest DNA testing clinic, pharmacy or mobile sample collection service please use the location search tool.


I’ve tested with each of the big five. It’s wise in the sense that you have access to every database of matches. Some companies allow you to upload your raw DNA that was generated from other testing companies. That can save you a lot of money. So you can test with Ancestry, then upload your raw DNA to MyHeritage, FTDNA and LivingDNA. 23andMe do not allow uploads right now so you’d have to test with them separately. Ancestry also does not allow uploads, that’s why I would use them to do your initial test.
The SGM Plus system of DNA analysis targets ten loci, each of which contains two alleles. These are the “short tandem repeats” that vary between individuals. In addition, a further locus is targeted that acts as in indicator of the sex of the donor. A “full” DNA profile is one in which all of these loci have produced a reliable and reportable result. Occasionally, the processes used to target some of these loci fail, resulting in an incomplete or “partial” DNA profile. The most common reasons for such failure are either that a very small amount of DNA was present in the sample, the DNA may have become degraded, or that substances may have been present in the sample that may have inhibited the analysis process. Depending on the degree of success of the DNA analysis, the match probability calculated from a partial DNA profile may be reduced below the 1 in 1 billion that would be obtained from a full profile.
AncestryDNA has the largest database to compare your results to when making matches, with 23andMe coming in second and FTDNA in fourth. MyHeritage DNA, although newer than the others, is catching up fast and numbers now surpass FTDNA. Current numbers can be seen in the chart above and are estimates based on available data. Each of these databases is growing, some of them quite rapidly.
Think of all the words you can spell. I bet there are loads. But each word is made using the same selection of letters. Yes, sometimes we leave letters out, sometimes we repeat letters, but we always have the same selection of letters. Depending on how we arrange the letters of the alphabet we can make new words. The same is true in the four letter alphabet of DNA.

Each ancestry DNA service has its own sample database and reference panel made of the DNA samples collected from their users and information collected from sources like the 1000 Genomes Project. The database consists of all this information collectively. A reference panel is made of certain curated samples with known family history and roots in a specific place. The services use insights gleaned from the reference panel to give you geographical ancestry results. In theory, a larger database leads to more information available to create a good reference panel, which then leads to better results for customers.  
My grandfather was adopted, my father’s father. I have found FamilyTreeDna (FTDNA) was the best when it came to test results. Ancestry was great for research. I tested with both. They say fish in all of the pools and I have. I highly recommend testing with both Ancestry and FTDNA. I found my great grandfather who was born in 1884. 23andme was no help at all. MyHeritage works with FamilyTreeDna (FTDNA). HOPE THIS HELPS. Gary

DNA is a record of instructions telling the cell what its job is going to be. A good analogy for DNA as a whole is a set of blueprints for the cell, or computer code telling a PC what to do. It is written in a special alphabet that is only four letters long! Unlike a book or computer screen, DNA isn't flat and boring - it is a beautiful curved ladder. We call this shape a double helix. The letters of the DNA alphabet (called bases) make up the rungs, special sugars and other atoms make up the handrail.


The little changes are where “mutations” occur over generations – these aren’t necessarily bad, it just means that the gene has been copied slightly differently as it passed from father to son. Because its possible to predict how often mutations are likely to occur, comparing the Y-DNA from distant male cousins with a common ancestor (and seeing how many differences there are in a standardised set of markers tested) allows a rough estimate of when that common ancestor might have lived. A very close match between two men who share a common surname (only one or two differences) makes it very likely they are related, and a bigger number of differences makes it either less likely they are related, or that the most recent common ancestor is very many generations back.
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