Some concerns about the ultimate efficacy of certain home tests seem to emanate from the industry itself. I did a telomere-measuring test (a mouth swab) by Titanovo, based in north Colorado, which came back saying that my telomeres were too short, putting me at 10 biological years older than I am. However, when I contacted Titanovo, it explained that it had stopped telomere measuring and was now concentrating exclusively on its DNA-utilising “bioinformatics” health, fitness and wellbeing website (analysing client data from other genetic testing sites).

Most of this trait data tells you things you already know, like your hair and eye color, but it is fun to see them compared to your genetic relatives and the world at large. We also found it fascinating to learn more about how these physical traits are genetically determined. For example, finger length ratio is determined by hormonal exposure in the womb, with higher testosterone exposure resulting in a better chance of having a longer ring finger. 23andMe’s Health report for finger length ratio looks at 15 gene markers to estimate your likelihood of having longer ring fingers or index fingers.


23andMe has also been the target of concerns over how they handle user data. Their tools are more advanced than what AncestryDNA offers, and the International Society of Genetic Genealogists claims that they have the most accurate admixture results – but many in their database are health testers and may not be receptive to matching for genealogy purposes. They also offer no family tree integration at all.
Both men and women can take mitochondrial DNA tests (because we all possess mitochondria in our cells), but it’s worth noting that women are unable to take Y DNA tests as they do not possess a Y chromosome. If you’re female and you’d like to learn more about your paternal lineage, you can ask a close male relative to take a Y DNA test on your behalf – read our article about Y DNA testing for more information.
The Geno 2.0 test uses a Helix spit-tube test, which is extremely easy to register. It took National Geographic 27 days to notify testers of results. Because Helix uses exome sequencing instead of the more-common genotyping, you cannot download your raw DNA information from this test to upload into other databases. You can, however, purchase more DNA apps from the Helix Marketplace to run your data through partner databases without submitting additional samples.
The only patients having their genome sequenced are those with certain cancers or rare diseases. In some cases, family members may also be asked to participate. To take part, a patient must first be referred by a consultant, before being taken through an extensive consent process to ensure they know what participation in the project means. As well as the genome sequence, Genomics England asks for access to a patient’s lifetime medical records so that links can be made between their genetics and their individual disease. The NHS has made it very clear that, for many participants, taking part in this project won’t help them treat their disease. But it is hoped that the information they provide will go on to help treat others in the future.
Consult a doctor on any health data: Cancer. Leukemia. Heart disease. Alzheimer's. There are a lot of scary afflictions out there, and your DNA testing may well indicate which ones to which you are genetically predispositioned. But the data from DNA testing exists in isolation. You should consult your doctor to explore the data from any of these tests. They'll help you determine how to implement any lifestyle changes or followup testing as a result, if it's worth doing so.

Each ancestry DNA service has its own sample database and reference panel made of the DNA samples collected from their users and information collected from sources like the 1000 Genomes Project. The database consists of all this information collectively. A reference panel is made of certain curated samples with known family history and roots in a specific place. The services use insights gleaned from the reference panel to give you geographical ancestry results. In theory, a larger database leads to more information available to create a good reference panel, which then leads to better results for customers.  
Rachel, it’s been a year since you posted your query. Perhaps you have your answers? In case not, here are a few suggestions. Since you are an adoptee, perhaps with no knowledge of your biological family, you probably are most interested in details there, while your ethnic makeup is a very minor concern and where most DNA services give similar results anyways. Maybe your goal is to locate your birth parents? If that’s all true, then buy an AncestryDNA kit, as they have 10 million DNA profiles in their database, which is more than all competitors combined. The more profiles to DNA match against the more matches you’ll get to your biological relatives. Next download your raw Ancestry DNA data, and then upload it for free into MyHeritage (2.5 million DNA profiles), FamilyTreeDNA (1 million DNA profiles), GEDmatch (1 million DNA profiles), LivingDNA (unknown database size), and DNA.land (0.15 million DNA profiles). That’s almost 5 million more DNA profiles to match against. Combined with AncestryDNA that’s about 15 million profiles. If lucky you may match to a 2nd cousin or closer relative which with luck could lead to your birth parents, definitely will match to a few if not many 3rd cousins and 1000s of 4th or more distant cousins. If you change your mind and decide purchasing a second DNA kit is worth the expense, then buy a 23andMe DNA kit, which adds 5 million more DNA profiles to match against. Hope these suggestions were useful. Good luck.
While 23andMe does offer DNA relative matching and some tools to compare your genes to your DNA relatives, it doesn’t have robust genealogy tools, as its focus rests more in personal discovery and exploration. To that end, 23andMe has an optional health upgrade that provides reports on DNA traits like hair color and genetic predispositions to certain illnesses and diseases. It is the only DNA test with FDA approval for testing genes linked to conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. If you’re interested in the health portion of the test, we recommend buying the Health + Ancestry test together, as this option costs less than upgrading later.
I’m afraid that you're unlikely to find a DNA test that can tell you specifically which tribe your ancestors came from. We’d recommend taking a look at the answer to this forum post, which explains a bit more about why this is the case: https://dnatestingchoice.com/forum/showthread.php?1259-Welsh-Ancestry. Although the original post was about Welsh ancestry, the concepts are the same regardless of where in the world the specific groups of people lived.
It should be said that if these Family Finder tools sound like a good way to add to your family tree, the majority of the matches you’ll be shown will be 3rd cousins or more distant, and it can take a significant amount of research to place them on your tree. That said, if you’re prepared to contact your matches and try to piece together your familial connection, using the Family Finder feature can be lots of fun and a great way to make friends all over the world!
When it comes to proving a biological relationship between a British citizen and a family member living abroad so that they may immigrate, DNA testing can greatly strengthen the case. However, DNA evidence alone does not guarantee a successful immigration application. If you’re considering taking a DNA test for immigration purposes, we recommend you take legal advice to ensure it’s used in the best possible way.
The spit is for one of the home genetic-testing kits I’m sampling. A growing number of these kits (brands such as 23andMe, DNAFit, Thriva, MyHeritage DNA, and Orig3n) promise to unlock the mystery of your genomes, variously explaining everything from ancestry, residual Neanderthal variants, “bioinformatics” for fitness, weight loss and skincare, to more random genetic predispositions, denoting, say, the dimensions of your earlobes or the consistency of your earwax.
If you’d like to take extra measures to provide a means of identifying your DNA in your absence, you can also choose to store your biological DNA sample – this is known as DNA banking. It can provide reassurance to know that a DNA profile can be produced from your securely stored DNA sample, and depending on your circumstances, you can either pay to have your sample stored with the company you purchased it from, or order a home banking kit which will provide the materials you need to securely store your sample at home. If this is of interest, you can check out the companies that offer DNA banking.
In Newman’s view, the genie is out of the bottle with home genetic-testing kits. He says that while the kits could potentially provide data in the future, right now, they lack “clinical utility” – they look at genetic variants that, individually, have a very low chance of predicting specific health risks, as there are too many variables: “It’s like the Opportunity Knocks clap-o-meter, with some people further along the scale, and therefore more likely to get the condition and then people at the other end of the scale, who are unlikely to get it.”

The core feature of all ethnicity DNA tests is to show you a breakdown of the ethnic groups who have contributed to your autosomal DNA, normally as a list, pie chart, and/or map in an online account. It’s understood that these tests give you a picture of your ethnic heritage from the past five to six generations, and this is because the number of your ancestors increases exponentially the further back you go.


The Y chromosome is a special chromosome, passed on from fathers to their sons, while mothers pass on mtDNA to both their sons and daughters. But mtDNA dies with men and so it survives only in the female line. This means that a man’s lineage can be followed along both paternal and maternal lines, while in a woman only her maternal or mtDNA line can be followed.
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