Good explanation, but I was a little distressed by the part of the analogy that says people know what work to do because "someone tells us." That statement makes people sound like robots and that we do not make decisions on our own. Maybe this is lost on me because I work for myself, but this paints the picture of a chain of people telling other people what to do and everyone following blindly. Something to think about when discussing this concept with children! Humans have free will... :)
Alternatively, if you believe your "Italy/Greece" result indicated your known Italian heritage, it is possible that your son simply did not inherit the associated DNA from you. We all inherit roughly half our DNA from each parent, but the DNA we inherit is selected at random, and so even full siblings can have different ancestry results, depending on which genetic variants they inherited.
Self-collection DNA test kits are a convenient and more affordable option. However, the support and advice you receive when making an appointment to have your DNA sample taken is invaluable and we will always recommend this option to you. To locate your nearest DNA testing clinic, pharmacy or mobile sample collection service please use the location search tool.
Many DNA databases, including Ancestry, 23andMe and MyHeritage DNA, have family search features, which match your DNA with that of potential relatives. These features help users searching for family, including adoptees and children conceived through sperm donations. Almost every DNA testing service we interviewed for this article had a story ready about how its service facilitated a heartwarming family reunion. Like these from Ancestry, this one from MyHeritage and this one from 23andMe. Because many DNA services also have resources like family tree builders, the tests work in tandem with genealogical research.
While FTDNA is currently the only company to offer an advanced and full featured chromosome browser (the ability to analyze your results and compare matches by chromosome), MyHeritage now offers a nice integration of a simple chromosome browser right on each match page. 23andMe does not offer a browser but does show your ethnicity “painted” on your chromosomes and Ancestry does not offer this service at all.
Prices range from £100 to £200 for a basic DNA profile, but it’s worth mentioning that the cost largely depends on what you intend to do with it. One of the major factors that you need to consider, and which significantly impacts the cost, is whether you want your DNA profile to be legally admissible or not. Legal DNA profiles cost more than peace of mind versions, but if there’s a chance that your profile will be used in legal proceedings, it’s worth paying extra for.
Like many of the best DNA test kits, Living DNA examines autosomal and mitochondrial DNA, as well as Y-DNA for males. The service’s Family Networks feature, currently in beta, allows customers to find DNA relatives within its database. I received test results 27 days after dropping my sample in the mail. One fun Living DNA feature is that you can order your DNA analysis in coffee table book form.
The first kit I try is Thriva’s baseline test (£49), which, like all its products, checks your blood. The box arrives promptly enough (containing spring-loaded needles, a little collection tube, antiseptic wipes, plasters, etc), but there’s a problem. The idea is to prick your finger and massage blood into the tube, but I just end up making my fingers sore and what I get out barely smears the top of the phial. Maybe it’s just me, but it turns into a right faff. In the end, I take advantage of Thriva’s service to send someone out to take a sample of blood from my arm.
You might want to stay away from DNA tests if you or any of your close relatives have committed a crime. Although ancestry DNA testing companies don’t typically share database information with law enforcement, consumer DNA tests may result in future identification. For example, FamilyTreeDNA, which has a database of close to a million samples, has agreed to give the FBI limited access to the company's DNA database. This access consists mainly of consumer-level insights, like matches with other members of the FamilyTreeDNA community who have enabled family matching; by law, however, more in-depth investigation requires a subpoena.
The Y chromosome is a special chromosome, passed on from fathers to their sons, while mothers pass on mtDNA to both their sons and daughters. But mtDNA dies with men and so it survives only in the female line. This means that a man’s lineage can be followed along both paternal and maternal lines, while in a woman only her maternal or mtDNA line can be followed.