The 23andMe sample collection kit is extremely easy to navigate. However, it can take a while to work up enough spit for the saliva sample tube, especially since you can’t eat or drink before or during sample collection. Even so, most of our testers preferred the saliva samples over the faster but more painful cheek swabs that many other companies use. Registering the kit on 23andMe’s website was also simple. Each kit comes with a sample return box, which you can just drop in the mail after sealing your sample. After that, you wait for your results.
In our tests, we did find consistency across our results on the continental level. For example, my ancestry is exclusively East Asian, but 23andMe breaks it down into 80 percent Korean, 10.5 percent Japanese and 0.8 percent Chinese, with the remaining 8.7 percent in broader categories. However, Ancestry reports my DNA as 98 percent Korean and Northern Chinese, with only 2 percent Japanese. National Geographic places 85 percent of my ancestry from Northeastern Asia and 14 percent from the South China Sea region, with my DNA most closely matching the Korean and Japanese reference populations.
The 23andMe sample collection kit is extremely easy to navigate. However, it can take a while to work up enough spit for the saliva sample tube, especially since you can’t eat or drink before or during sample collection. Even so, most of our testers preferred the saliva samples over the faster but more painful cheek swabs that many other companies use. Registering the kit on 23andMe’s website was also simple. Each kit comes with a sample return box, which you can just drop in the mail after sealing your sample. After that, you wait for your results.

Ancestry offers cousin matches for free as part of your DNA purchase but charges an additional monthly fee for access to its trees and some additional features. They recently added Genetic Communities and have numerous other features to help you connect via your tree to genetic matches. This makes research very easy for those who are already using Ancestry and are holding a paid subscription.
When my results appear, they show nothing bad. If anything, it’s anticlimactic: cholesterol, vitamins, liver proteins and the like are all in the normal range, with only ferritin (iron stores) slightly high, with a recommendation to go easy on any iron supplements. My problem with the baseline test is that, unlike Thriva’s other products, clients are supposed to have one every three months to keep track, but would I really want (or indeed need) to do such a test so regularly?
I’ve tested with each of the big five. It’s wise in the sense that you have access to every database of matches. Some companies allow you to upload your raw DNA that was generated from other testing companies. That can save you a lot of money. So you can test with Ancestry, then upload your raw DNA to MyHeritage, FTDNA and LivingDNA. 23andMe do not allow uploads right now so you’d have to test with them separately. Ancestry also does not allow uploads, that’s why I would use them to do your initial test.
Most companies will use algorithms to compare the genetic variants uniquely associated to a reference population with those identified in the person being tested. This can help them exclude unlikely population groups from your ethnic mix, and ensure that the ethnic groups you’re shown to be composed of are more accurately reported. Although most companies will share the reference populations they use with their customers, they rarely provide information on the algorithms they’ve developed.
The test kit gathers saliva from spit. It offers a free family tree tool to which users can contribute their specific results. You can also download your full DNA profile and import that data into another tool -- but it doesn't offer a chromosome browser, so you can't really do DNA segment comparisons. Given this, if you're a true DNA geek, Ancestry may not be the service for you.
In order to truly understand what a DNA estimate is, we have to get a little bit scientific.  The DNA testing companies use something called “sample populations” in order to give you your ethnicity estimate.  Their laboratories compare your DNA with that of thousands of people from all over the world.  In order to become a part of the same population, the participants would have needed to prove that they and their ancestors have lived in the same geographic area for several generations.  Their DNA is then grouped by geographic area.

Most companies will use algorithms to compare the genetic variants uniquely associated to a reference population with those identified in the person being tested. This can help them exclude unlikely population groups from your ethnic mix, and ensure that the ethnic groups you’re shown to be composed of are more accurately reported. Although most companies will share the reference populations they use with their customers, they rarely provide information on the algorithms they’ve developed.
Specific genetic variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with an increased risk of developing certain cancers, including breast cancer (in women and men) and ovarian cancer. These variants may also be associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer and certain other cancers. This test includes three genetic variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are most common in people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.
Admixture percentages are one of the biggest reasons people choose to have their DNA tested. This report attempts to accurately match your DNA with population samples from around the world to tell you where your ancestors came from. Each of these companies has strengths and weaknesses when it comes to this calculation, and in the reports it provides to users.
The SGM Plus system of DNA analysis targets ten loci, each of which contains two alleles. These are the “short tandem repeats” that vary between individuals. In addition, a further locus is targeted that acts as in indicator of the sex of the donor. A “full” DNA profile is one in which all of these loci have produced a reliable and reportable result. Occasionally, the processes used to target some of these loci fail, resulting in an incomplete or “partial” DNA profile. The most common reasons for such failure are either that a very small amount of DNA was present in the sample, the DNA may have become degraded, or that substances may have been present in the sample that may have inhibited the analysis process. Depending on the degree of success of the DNA analysis, the match probability calculated from a partial DNA profile may be reduced below the 1 in 1 billion that would be obtained from a full profile.

ARSACS Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum with Peripheral Neuropathy Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Beta Thalassemia and Related Hemoglobinopathies Bloom Syndrome Canavan Disease Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a (PMM2-CDG) Cystic Fibrosis D-Bifunctional Protein Deficiency Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency Familial Dysautonomia Familial Hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-Related) Familial Mediterranean Fever Fanconi Anemia Group C GRACILE Syndrome Gaucher Disease Type 1 Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Herlitz Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (LAMB3-Related) Leigh Syndrome, French Canadian Type Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2D Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I MCAD Deficiency Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B Mucolipidosis Type IV Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN5-Related) Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (PPT1-Related) Niemann-Pick Disease Type A Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss and Deafness, DFNB1 (GJB2-Related) Pendred Syndrome and DFNB4 Hearing Loss (SLC26A4-Related) Phenylketonuria and Related Disorders Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1 Salla Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Tay-Sachs Disease Tyrosinemia Type I Usher Syndrome Type 1F Usher Syndrome Type 3A Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum (PEX1-Related)


DNA test companies that use genotyping technology, including 23andMe and Ancestry, allow you to download your raw DNA file. A raw DNA file is usually a text file that contains all the information about your genetic code gleaned from the company’s examination of your DNA. This is comprised of several hundred thousand markers known as SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). Most raw files are organized into five columns: the SNP coded into an rsID number, the chromosome the SNP is located on, the location of the SNP on the chromosome and the two alleles for each SNP.
my husband and I had a DNA test with ancestry done 2 years ago then we had our adult daughters done 2018 at Christmas when we got the results back my husbands and my results had changed a lot. example I was 47% Ireland and 19% Great Britain it changed to Great Britian 66% and Ireland 34% why? I called them but they said they had just change there process , we did not send new dna either. 

AncestryDNA is appealing to many because the results can be matched (to some degree) with many well-established family trees, but major privacy concerns (about how your data is used and sold) have been present in the past. For many, this is a deal breaker. They also offer the fewest advanced tools for analyzing data, although their database is very large.
We evaluated each kit by ordering one, just like any customer would, and tracking how long it took to arrive at the lab and to get processed. Then we compared the breadth and depth of the results to see what rose to the top. The whole process was a lot of fun, in part because of the anticipation of getting the results. Most of the kits warn that testing your DNA can lead to surprising—even life-changing—results. For example, there's the story of a woman who thought she was Irish, but her DNA test revealed she was also European Jewish, Middle Eastern and Eastern European. After diligent research, she discovered that her father, who had died years earlier, had been switched at birth with another child.
Please note that some of the links in this article are affiliate links. That means that if you decide to click on one of these links and buy a test Family History Daily may receive a small amount of revenue. This revenue helps us support the running of this site but it does not influence the information we have shared. Our goal, first and foremost, is to provide you with accurate information that will help you in your research. 
For these reasons, mapping segments of your autosomal DNA to whole continents can be determined with a high level of certainty, but when you try to attribute these segments to specific tribes, regions or even countries, the certainty decreases. This is why some genetic ancestry companies will attribute a proportion of your DNA to areas such as ‘Eastern Europe’ or ‘Southern Asia’, instead of to specific countries.
ARSACS Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum with Peripheral Neuropathy Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Beta Thalassemia and Related Hemoglobinopathies Bloom Syndrome Canavan Disease Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a (PMM2-CDG) Cystic Fibrosis D-Bifunctional Protein Deficiency Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency Familial Dysautonomia Familial Hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-Related) Familial Mediterranean Fever Fanconi Anemia Group C GRACILE Syndrome Gaucher Disease Type 1 Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Herlitz Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (LAMB3-Related) Leigh Syndrome, French Canadian Type Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2D Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I MCAD Deficiency Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B Mucolipidosis Type IV Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN5-Related) Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (PPT1-Related) Niemann-Pick Disease Type A Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss and Deafness, DFNB1 (GJB2-Related) Pendred Syndrome and DFNB4 Hearing Loss (SLC26A4-Related) Phenylketonuria and Related Disorders Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1 Salla Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Tay-Sachs Disease Tyrosinemia Type I Usher Syndrome Type 1F Usher Syndrome Type 3A Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum (PEX1-Related)
As with traditional genealogical research, DNA testing can provide surprises so be prepared for the unexpected. You might uncover family secrets by matching with a cousin or a half-sibling that you didn’t know existed. Conversely a relation who is expected to share DNA with you might turn out not to be a genetic relative at all. In rare cases, people discover that their parents are not their biological parents. For a good overview of the ethical implications of DNA testing see the Genetic Genealogy Standards.

I’m afraid that you're unlikely to find a DNA test that can tell you specifically which tribe your ancestors came from. We’d recommend taking a look at the answer to this forum post, which explains a bit more about why this is the case: https://dnatestingchoice.com/forum/showthread.php?1259-Welsh-Ancestry. Although the original post was about Welsh ancestry, the concepts are the same regardless of where in the world the specific groups of people lived.
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition associated with very high levels of cholesterol in the blood, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol. High cholesterol due to FH increases the risk for early cardiovascular disease, which can lead to a heart attack. This test includes 24 genetic variants linked to FH.
Looking at your raw DNA file might not give you any useful information unless you’re looking for a specific marker. You can also upload the file into a third-party DNA databases for information or results beyond what’s available from your testing company. This process is not without risks, as your DNA testing company only ensures the security of your personal information in its own environment. Once you download the file, you’re responsible for the file’s security. However, uploading your raw DNA to a third party database isn’t inherently unsafe — just be cautious.

DNA Clinics will always advise an appointment for your DNA test. However, there are occasions and circumstances when our customers prefer to collect their own mouth swab samples for DNA testing. DNA Clinics self-collection DNA testing kits are available to order by telephone by calling 0800 988 7107 or on-line at www.homednapaternitytest.co.uk. DNA test kits ordered on-line are sent out for FREE. The payment for your chosen DNA test is payable when you return your samples to DNA Clinics.
MyHeritage DNA is the newest kid on the block and, while their database is still growing, it is comprised of people who have tested from all of the other three testing companies (this is thanks to their free DNA upload offer). In addition to this, they have shown a clear commitment to concerns and requests by their users by promising to provide advanced tools in the future and by creating an open and optional consent policy for use of DNA data. They also offer the ability to tie in with a large database of family trees and records. We think this test has a lot of promise if they continue to respond in this positive way to users.
AncestryDNA has the largest database to compare your results to when making matches, with 23andMe coming in second and FTDNA in fourth. MyHeritage DNA, although newer than the others, is catching up fast and numbers now surpass FTDNA. Current numbers can be seen in the chart above and are estimates based on available data. Each of these databases is growing, some of them quite rapidly.
When you get your 23andMe results, it takes you to an easy-to-navigate dashboard with your ancestry composition report front and center. Testers reported both high levels of confidence in the accuracy and high rates of satisfaction with the contents and detail of their results. The service breaks down the world into 171 populations, based off its reference panel of 10,000 individuals with known ancestry. Some of these population groups are a tad redundant. For example, I received hits for South Korean, Korean, Broadly Japanese & Korean, and Broadly East Asian in my report, which all represent a similar area but show different levels of certainty. Scrolling down your ancestry summary, you can also view your ancestry timeline. This estimates how many generations back your most recent ancestor from each of your matched regions probably lived. You can also view your ancestry composition mapped out on chromosomes. This view is interesting, as you can change the level of confidence from speculative to conservative, which equates a match percentage of 50 to 90 percent.
Both men and women can take mitochondrial DNA tests (because we all possess mitochondria in our cells), but it’s worth noting that women are unable to take Y DNA tests as they do not possess a Y chromosome. If you’re female and you’d like to learn more about your paternal lineage, you can ask a close male relative to take a Y DNA test on your behalf – read our article about Y DNA testing for more information.
These tests can reveal the migratory paths of your paternal and maternal ancestors after they left Africa 200,000 years ago. By studying the migratory route they took, this can help you identify the ethnic groups they may have been part of. That said, as your paternal line is your father’s father’s father etc., and as your maternal line is your mother’s mother’s mother etc.; your paternal and maternal ancestors represent a smaller and smaller proportion of your ancestry the further back you go (just one sixteenth of your total ancestry five generations ago). Therefore, tracing your migratory paths back thousands of years may provide insights, but they’re a poor means of exploring your ethnic mix.
23andMe has also been the target of concerns over how they handle user data. Their tools are more advanced than what AncestryDNA offers, and the International Society of Genetic Genealogists claims that they have the most accurate admixture results – but many in their database are health testers and may not be receptive to matching for genealogy purposes. They also offer no family tree integration at all.
AncestryDNA has the largest database to compare your results to when making matches, with 23andMe coming in second and FTDNA in fourth. MyHeritage DNA, although newer than the others, is catching up fast and numbers now surpass FTDNA. Current numbers can be seen in the chart above and are estimates based on available data. Each of these databases is growing, some of them quite rapidly.

It could be that, in the main, genetic-testing kits such as these could, if promoted and used responsibly, end up zoned completely away from legitimate science and medicine and placed where perhaps they belong, firmly in the lifestyle-extra zone, if and when people think they’re “worth it”. Though, somewhat tellingly, when I ask Newman if he thinks that any of the genetic testing kits are worth buying, he instantly says: “No. I’d say, go to the cinema, watch some sport. Spend the money on something nice, something life-enhancing.”
Similarly, mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, is used by direct-to-consumer DNA tests to trace your direct maternal lineage and determine maternal haplogroups. While most DNA lives in your cells' nuclei, mtDNA lives in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cells' powerhouses – their 37 genes are necessary for cellular energy production and respiration. Previous research suggested that mtDNA is inherited directly from your mother, but a recent study found that biparental mtDNA may be more common. This discovery may affect maternal haplogroup testing in DNA tests in the future, but for now, it’s safe to assume your results are correct.
Companies like Embark, Wisdom Panel and many others offer genetic health risk screenings, trait analyses and breed percentage information for dogs. These canine ancestry tests allow you to confidently state that your mutt is part Irish wolf hound and give you key information about your pet’s heritage for insights into potential health issues. For example, if you find out one of your rescue dog’s parents was likely a purebred boxer, you could speak with your vet about breed-specific needs. Basepaws DNA CatKit promises information about your cat’s breed and traits with just a hair sample, though it offers swab kits for hairless cats. The kit also tells you how closely related your kitty is to wild cats like lions, tigers and ocelots.
Ancestry offers cousin matches for free as part of your DNA purchase but charges an additional monthly fee for access to its trees and some additional features. They recently added Genetic Communities and have numerous other features to help you connect via your tree to genetic matches. This makes research very easy for those who are already using Ancestry and are holding a paid subscription.

As well as showing you which ethnic groups you’ve inherited your DNA from, autosomal DNA tests can also be used to find living relatives and build your family tree. Many people attempting to build their family tree will often make breakthroughs in their research when they combine a DNA genealogy test (such as an ethnicity test) with traditional genealogical techniques.


The situation is made even more complex if it is considered that three or more people may have contributed to a particular DNA result. Often, in such cases, it is not possible for a scientist to undertake a reliable statistical evaluation of the mixed DNA result. If the DNA result indicates that a very low level of DNA has been detected, it is recommended that the reporting forensic scientist consider the possibility that the result may have been derived from a very low level of DNA from more than one person, some of the components of which may be missing from the DNA result because of the low level of DNA present
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