I have tried Ancestry and 23 and me.Ancestry is great for their database and forming a family tree and their DNA matches are good.I liked 23 and me the best as I thought the results on my heritage matched more what I know to be true of my Northern European background.They gave me 10% more Scandinavian which my father was .I have found no one from the Iberian peninsula going back to the 1400’s on the Ancestry database yet they tell me I have 9% from that arena ,but 23 and me says only 2% which I believe is more accurate.
Every company on this list promises test results in 6-8 weeks after they receive a sample, except for MyHeritage DNA which claims 3-4 weeks. This can vary however and is influenced by demand and other factors. It is generally a good rule of thumb to anticipate that it will take 2-3 months for results once you order a test. This accounts for the time it takes for you (or your recipient) to receive the test, provide a sample, mail it back and for processing of your results.
Finding small percentages of unexpected ethnicities may prove to be inaccurate upon further examination, and NOT finding traces of a certain group, such as Native American, may not necessarily prove that you do not have ancestors from that region or group. You can read more about that as it pertains to Native American research here. You can apply this statement to any ethnicity or region you might expect or hope to find in your results.
AncestryDNA has the largest database to compare your results to when making matches, with 23andMe coming in second and FTDNA in fourth. MyHeritage DNA, although newer than the others, is catching up fast and numbers now surpass FTDNA. Current numbers can be seen in the chart above and are estimates based on available data. Each of these databases is growing, some of them quite rapidly.
So, back to the example of the two men (lets call them John and James) we think might be brothers: We find two g-g-grandsons (or any male descendant in a direct father-son line) of each, preferably the most distant cousins we can find, and get a Y-DNA test done for all four men. Usually a 37 marker Y-DNA test is a good place to start. This looks at 37 sections of each persons DNA that the genetic scientists think are most useful for our purposes (the bits that are least likely to randomly change over generations). The results come back looking like a fairly meaningless string of numbers which are fairly useless on their own, but allow us to compare each persons result with others in the database of the testing company.
When STR profiling is carried out, the whole of the person’s DNA is not examined. Rather, specific regions (loci) of the DNA which are known to vary greatly between individuals are examined. These loci are areas of the DNA which contain varying numbers of repeating sequences known as short tandem repeats (STRs). It is the number of these repeating units which can differ between individuals. If there are differences between profiles obtained from different samples, the two samples cannot have come from the same person. If, however, the profiles match, then it follows that the samples could have originated from the same person or from any other person who happened to have the same STR profile.Â
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You might want to stay away from DNA tests if you or any of your close relatives have committed a crime. Although ancestry DNA testing companies don’t typically share database information with law enforcement, consumer DNA tests may result in future identification. For example, FamilyTreeDNA, which has a database of close to a million samples, has agreed to give the FBI limited access to the company's DNA database. This access consists mainly of consumer-level insights, like matches with other members of the FamilyTreeDNA community who have enabled family matching; by law, however, more in-depth investigation requires a subpoena.
On all platforms except for National Geographic, you can initiate a search for relatives, though some services let you upload your National Geographic results for further analysis. The software continually searches for DNA matches as more people share their results. This feature may be useful if you're building a family tree or looking for relatives you've never met; otherwise, it may more of a nuisance. You can opt in or out at any time, and the DNA service doesn't share your contact information. Relatives can message you through the software, though. If you already use genealogy software, you may be able to download your results and upload them into your preferred program. Otherwise, AncestryDNA and others featured here have family tree software that you can easily link.
As stated at the start of this guide, each one of the main tests will provide you with easy-to-use reports and cousin matching that you can use in your genealogy research. You will need to carefully review the information provided in this guide to make a decision about which test is best for your particular needs. You may also choose to test with (or upload your results to) multiple companies.