Similarly, if a person has contributed a clear and distinct minority of the DNA detected, that part of the profile may be referred to as the “Minor Contribution”. However, if DNA from one or more people is present in a mixed DNA result in roughly equal quantities, any statistic relating to the likelihood that any one particular person may have contributed to the DNA profile is necessarily reduced in value due to the inherent uncertainties regarding which DNA components may have come from either contributor.

In testing, we found that many tests have much more specific and detailed results for European ancestry than anywhere else. This is due more to the diversity of the database than size. For example, AncestryDNA has the largest database with over 10 million samples yet results for Asian ancestry are markedly less specific than results from several companies with much smaller databases, including 23andMe and Living DNA.
Even though we are all unique, most of our DNA is actually identical to other people’s DNA. However, specific regions vary highly between people. These regions are called polymorphic. Differences in these variable regions between people are known as polymorphisms. Each of us inherits a unique combination of polymorphisms from our parents. DNA polymorphisms can be analysed to give a DNA profile.
Every company on this list promises test results in 6-8 weeks after they receive a sample, except for MyHeritage DNA which claims 3-4 weeks. This can vary however and is influenced by demand and other factors. It is generally a good rule of thumb to anticipate that it will take 2-3 months for results once you order a test. This accounts for the time it takes for you (or your recipient) to receive the test, provide a sample, mail it back and for processing of your results.
ARSACS Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum with Peripheral Neuropathy Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Beta Thalassemia and Related Hemoglobinopathies Bloom Syndrome Canavan Disease Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a (PMM2-CDG) Cystic Fibrosis D-Bifunctional Protein Deficiency Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency Familial Dysautonomia Familial Hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-Related) Familial Mediterranean Fever Fanconi Anemia Group C GRACILE Syndrome Gaucher Disease Type 1 Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Herlitz Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (LAMB3-Related) Leigh Syndrome, French Canadian Type Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2D Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I MCAD Deficiency Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B Mucolipidosis Type IV Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN5-Related) Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (PPT1-Related) Niemann-Pick Disease Type A Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss and Deafness, DFNB1 (GJB2-Related) Pendred Syndrome and DFNB4 Hearing Loss (SLC26A4-Related) Phenylketonuria and Related Disorders Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1 Salla Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Tay-Sachs Disease Tyrosinemia Type I Usher Syndrome Type 1F Usher Syndrome Type 3A Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum (PEX1-Related)
As discussed, DNA is much more resilient than the items traditionally used to determine someone’s identity, such as passports, licenses or dog tags. In addition, a tiny DNA sample is often enough to produce a complete DNA profile, whereas paper or digital records can become difficult to interpret with even small amounts of damage. DNA profiling for DNA identification therefore offers a quicker and more conclusive method of identification than other approaches.

In addition to showing geographic ancestry percentages, some direct-to-consumer DNA tests also include insights about physical traits like hair and eye color. With 23andMe, this trait information is mostly available in the upgraded Ancestry + Health kit, but some interesting tidbits can be found in the Your DNA Family report, which is available if you opt to participate in the DNA Relatives service. 
Every human carries two copies of the genetic code, one inherited from the mother and one from the father, some 6 billion letters in all. Apart from identical twins, no two individuals have the same genetic code.  With the exception of the egg and sperm cells, all the cells of our bodies have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all. One chromosome of the pair is inherited from the father and one from the mother. However, in males the 23rd pair consists of a so-called Y-chromosome and an X-chromosome, whereas females have two X-chromosomes.  The Y chromosome contains a gene which triggers embryonic development as a male and carries information about the male’s paternal lineage.
The spit is for one of the home genetic-testing kits I’m sampling. A growing number of these kits (brands such as 23andMe, DNAFit, Thriva, MyHeritage DNA, and Orig3n) promise to unlock the mystery of your genomes, variously explaining everything from ancestry, residual Neanderthal variants, “bioinformatics” for fitness, weight loss and skincare, to more random genetic predispositions, denoting, say, the dimensions of your earlobes or the consistency of your earwax.

When you get your 23andMe results, it takes you to an easy-to-navigate dashboard with your ancestry composition report front and center. Testers reported both high levels of confidence in the accuracy and high rates of satisfaction with the contents and detail of their results. The service breaks down the world into 171 populations, based off its reference panel of 10,000 individuals with known ancestry. Some of these population groups are a tad redundant. For example, I received hits for South Korean, Korean, Broadly Japanese & Korean, and Broadly East Asian in my report, which all represent a similar area but show different levels of certainty. Scrolling down your ancestry summary, you can also view your ancestry timeline. This estimates how many generations back your most recent ancestor from each of your matched regions probably lived. You can also view your ancestry composition mapped out on chromosomes. This view is interesting, as you can change the level of confidence from speculative to conservative, which equates a match percentage of 50 to 90 percent.


Which is all very well, but do these kits work and deliver the service they promise and what about the wider ethics and implications of home genetic testing? Is it always wise for generally under-informed, under-prepared consumers to meddle in the highly complex, nuanced arena of genetics, risking confusion, complacency or even outright panic and anxiety when confronted with ostensible “bad news” (which may not even be true)?
Therefore, when the markers in two samples are analysed, the number of times that they’re repeated can be compared and the statistical likelihood that they came from the same person or from two closely related individuals can be calculated. This is why DNA profiling can be used to establish biological relationships, as well as to connect DNA evidence with a criminal suspect.

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A collaboration between scientists, researchers and genetic experts from across the globe, Living DNA has offered ancestry tests since 2016 while parent company, DNA Worldwide Group, has been operating since 2004. Our focus has always been on providing the world’s best collection of British and Irish historical records and while we’ve investigated the DNA market for some time, we hadn’t identified a partner that could truly bridge the gap between genetic genealogy and traditional family history research. Living DNA’s focus on British and Irish DNA makes them our perfect partner.
A DNA profile can also be adapted to produce artwork. Several companies will use the profiling technique discussed above, but they’ll combine florescent colours with your genetic markers to produce bands that look a bit like a barcode. These bands can be mounted on canvas, wood, metal or other materials to create a piece of art that can be displayed in your home. They can also be digitised and customised with different colours or background themes to make a range of ‘DNA portraits’. One company, Dot One, even makes scarves and rugs inspired by these patterns!
In order to truly understand what a DNA estimate is, we have to get a little bit scientific.  The DNA testing companies use something called “sample populations” in order to give you your ethnicity estimate.  Their laboratories compare your DNA with that of thousands of people from all over the world.  In order to become a part of the same population, the participants would have needed to prove that they and their ancestors have lived in the same geographic area for several generations.  Their DNA is then grouped by geographic area.
After taking a DNA test for ethnicity, many ancestry companies will give you the option to contact their other customers, providing you share sections of your autosomal DNA with them (meaning that you’re related to these individuals to a greater or lesser degree). The companies that do this maintain ‘Family Finder’ databases, and the people you’re related to are usually referred to as ‘matches’. The three largest companies that do this are Family Tree DNA, Ancestry.com and 23andMe, and as part of the results that they provide, you’ll be able to see a list of these living relatives ranked according to how closely you’re related to them.
Every company on this list promises test results in 6-8 weeks after they receive a sample, except for MyHeritage DNA which claims 3-4 weeks. This can vary however and is influenced by demand and other factors. It is generally a good rule of thumb to anticipate that it will take 2-3 months for results once you order a test. This accounts for the time it takes for you (or your recipient) to receive the test, provide a sample, mail it back and for processing of your results.
Still, it is fun see a visual and numerical representation of where your ancestors came from (generally speaking) and, although there are those who swear by one company or the other, all of these testing companies do a fairly decent job of giving you a report you can enjoy and use in your research. FTNDA recently updated to the much anticipated MyOrigins 2.0 and MyHeritage DNA just updated to their improved 42 population Ethnicity Estimate and offers a nicely detailed report.
AncestryDNA, 23andMe, HomeDNA, Living DNA, and MyHeritage DNA all provide reports of your ethnicity, some showing maps of where your ancestors lived along with information about the particular countries and regions. National Geographic goes further back, pinpointing where in Africa your ancestors came from and tracing migration patterns through to near-present times. It's less about your personal genetic makeup and more about who your ancestors were and how you're connected to the beginning of civilization.
The DNA test thing is a scam as the results cannot have precision. I know where my recent ancestors came from and wanted to “test a DNA test”. My ancestry is 3/4 Spanish Valencian and 1/4 Spanish Ibizean (Ibiza): I have family papers and village names for my recent ancestors: they all have typical Spanish/Catalan names and I expected this to be reflected in my results.

Offering DNA test kits and a range of online subscription services, MyHeritage says that its database includes more ethnicities -- that's 42 -- than any other major testing service. The free 14-day trial will let you poke around the company's massive online database which includes 3.5 billion profiles in addition to information about over 100 million subscribers and their collective 46 million family trees. 
With a 16-day turnaround, MyHeritage DNA was one of the first companies to send back our test results, but I found the contents of my ancestry report to be a bit off, especially when compared to my geographic ancestry reports from other companies. I was born in Korea and therefore expected at least a little of my Korean heritage to make it onto my ancestry map, as it did with other services, but MyHeritage didn’t report any Korean heritage. 
FTDNA is the market leader for both Y-DNA and mtDNA testing, and has the world’s largest Y-DNA and mtDNA genealogical matching databases. They are the only company that allows complete integration of Y-DNA, mtDNA and autosomal DNA test results for genealogical purposes. They host a wide variety of surname projects, haplogroup projects (Y-DNA and mtDNA), and geographical projects. Experienced and knowledgeable volunteer project administrators can often provide advice and help with the interpretation of results. They are not the first choice for autosomal DNA because of the smaller database but matches are more likely to be responsive and interested in genealogy.
Of course, most DNA used by law enforcement in the U.S. does not come from direct-to-consumer DNA tests. The federal government and many states collect DNA samples from suspects of violent crimes after arrest or due to probable cause. These samples are added to the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, which is a national database for forensic information.
Home DNA testing has gone from a niche pursuit to a simple way to map out your family tree. A DNA test can be used to determine paternity and research ancestry or familial origin. And over the past few years, they've become quite affordable, with a wide range of companies selling DNA test kits -- from trailblazers such as Ancestry and 23andMe to upstarts that include LivingDNA. 

It is very important that you take the time to read the privacy policy, terms and conditions and consent forms associated with any DNA test you take or any site you choose to upload your data to. While FTDNA has a proven track record of protecting the privacy of its users, there have been serious concerns over how AncestryDNA and 23andMe have used data in the past, as well as how they may use or sell your data in the future. Please read this article from Roberta Estes for more information on this issue. MyHeritage states that their consent form (that would allow sharing or selling of your results in aggregated data) is optional.  You can read more about that on The Legal Genealogist, who compliments MyHeritage DNA on their policy and openness.
In McCartney’s view, enough testing is already done in this country (sometimes too much) and there are issues of regulation and “informed consent”. “People are given very dramatic reasons to have these tests – it could help save your life, it could help improve the quality of your life – but where is the actual controlled evidence that these tests have ever done that? There’s no evidence that says doing these tests makes people become healthier.”

Each ancestry DNA service has its own sample database and reference panel made of the DNA samples collected from their users and information collected from sources like the 1000 Genomes Project. The database consists of all this information collectively. A reference panel is made of certain curated samples with known family history and roots in a specific place. The services use insights gleaned from the reference panel to give you geographical ancestry results. In theory, a larger database leads to more information available to create a good reference panel, which then leads to better results for customers.  
This was very interesting! I have an assignment about cells and I have to write a script (that I will probably need to read and use), that explains an animal cell, a plant cell, and a simple bacterial cell, to a 3rd grader. This article really helps me to explain the DNA that is in these cells. Thank you for taking your time to write this article to help me and many others about this topic!
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