After collecting spit and cheek cells, we mailed all of the tests at the same time and waited for results, noting all communications from the company in the meantime and how long it took each service to notify us that results were ready to view. We collected data based on testers’ impressions of their results, each service’s features and extras, how easy it was to use and navigate the service’s website, along with several other factors. We added this testing data to rigorous research and information gleaned from conversations with representatives from Ancestry, 23andMe, MyHeritageDNA, LivingDNA, Humancode (now owned by Helix) and 24genetics. 

A friend of mine knew I had been working on my family history and bought me an AncestryDNA kit for my birthday. My results were surprising to say the least. I discovered I’m 35% Native American, 5% African and 29% from the Iberian Peninsula. This has drastically broadened the way I think about my identity and heritage. I feel connected to those parts of the world now and I’m excited to see how far back our records can go.
DNA is found in most cells of the body, including white blood cells, semen, hair roots and body tissue. Traces of DNA can also be detected in body fluids, such as saliva and perspiration because they also contain epithelial cells. Forensic scientists and Police officers collect samples of DNA from crime scenes. DNA can also be collected directly from a person using a mouth swab (which collects inner cheek cells). Find out more in the article Crime scene evidence.
In the case of a great-grandchild, or a great-great-grandchild, something even stranger can happen.  Remember that a child will get half of their mother’s DNA, but there is never ever guarantee which 50%.  The way it is chosen is fairly random, as far as scientists know.  Take the example of the 100% Eastern European person.  Their great-grandchild will inherit 50% of their DNA from their part-Eastern European parent, but there is a good chance that they won’t inherit all of the Eastern European DNA that they could potentially inherit.  It’s possible for a person to share NO DNA with a great-great grandparent, even though there is a verified genealogical relationship.
Each DNA processing company divides the world into regions. One company has divided the world into 24 regions while another company has divided the same world into over 350 regions. This is why there is a noted disparity in the results that people are getting who have happened to use more than one company. results you have received are not necessarily wrong, just perhaps are not as finely sorted as you were maybe expecting.

Wow!  The amount of Eastern European varies from 54% to 63%.  These are verified full siblings – meaning that they had the same parents.  What has obviously happened is that each sibling inherited different DNA from each parent, which is what always happens.  Some DNA is always lost from each parent, no matter how many children that they have.  If you are interested in doing a DNA test for ethnicity purposes, it is really helpful to have your siblings or parents do the test, as well.

Instead, MyHeritage DNA reported I that I’m of Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese, and Mongolian descent. As I was looking for a reason to explain the discrepancy between tests, I discovered that there are large swaths of the map not covered by any of the service’s ancestral regions. The Korean peninsula is one of those areas, as are southern regions in South America, Africa and almost all of Australia and Russia. The oversight seems odd because MyHeritage could have easily included these missed areas inside a larger, generalized region instead of completely omitting them.


In sexual reproduction in mammals the DNA in the sperm and egg joins up so that homologous sequences are aligned with each other. This is followed by exchange of genetic information to form a new recombined chromosome which is passed on to the offspring.  Cell division then takes place and the chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. The double-stranded structure of DNA provides a simple mechanism for DNA replication. In this process the two strands are separated and then each strand’s complementary DNA sequence is recreated by an enzyme.
Note that DNA testing isn't the only kind of kit that collects physical evidence from you these days. Ubiome is one noteworthy example. The service evaluates your microbiome—basically the bacteria that live in and on you. In our review, we took its gut biome test, which required our intrepid reviewer to send in a poop sample (insert poop emoji here).
The DNA holds or stores the information using code in various forms, configurations, instructing cells what to do. Yes the DNA sends out instructions, ( or "tells" other celss what to do etc.. like a computer program can tell a robot what to do or carry out multiple functions. My question still remaining is... information came from an intelligent mind... not the physical data that it holds like DNA holds the information, it can copy the information.. but DNA did not code itself...it received the instructions.. no matter how long ago from a mind or an intelligent designer. Does ANYONE on this site agree? I have not seen anyone else question this.

As discussed, DNA is much more resilient than the items traditionally used to determine someone’s identity, such as passports, licenses or dog tags. In addition, a tiny DNA sample is often enough to produce a complete DNA profile, whereas paper or digital records can become difficult to interpret with even small amounts of damage. DNA profiling for DNA identification therefore offers a quicker and more conclusive method of identification than other approaches.
My favorite DNA test for finding ethnicity is Ancestry DNA.  My second favorite is 23 and Me.  The way Ancestry presents their DNA results is easy to understand, and their test is general less expensive than 23 and Me.  I have also found Ancestry DNA’s ethnicity estimates very closely represent what I have been able to research the old-fashioned way, both in my family and that of my husband and other family members.
The results of mixed DNA profiles may therefore provide reduced match probabilities when compared with non-mixed profiles. It may be possible for a scientist to be able to assess the relative amount of DNA contributed by different donors in a DNA mixture. If one person has contributed a clear and distinct majority of the DNA detected, that part of the profile may be referred to as the “Major Contribution”.

When my results appear, they show nothing bad. If anything, it’s anticlimactic: cholesterol, vitamins, liver proteins and the like are all in the normal range, with only ferritin (iron stores) slightly high, with a recommendation to go easy on any iron supplements. My problem with the baseline test is that, unlike Thriva’s other products, clients are supposed to have one every three months to keep track, but would I really want (or indeed need) to do such a test so regularly?
I was born in NYC, the youngest of five kids. My parents and three older siblings were born in Bogota, Colombia. My name implies Hispanico/Latino roots but when I’m with my Polynesian friends people always think I’m Hawaiian or a mix of Polynesian and something else. I recently attended a Nepali church service and people asked me what part of Nepal I was from.

We have zeroed in on autosomal tests only. These tests are used to give you the ancestry percentages and cousin matching most people are seeking. If you are interested in YDNA (paternal line only, for men) or mtDNA (maternal line only) you can find these tests at Family Tree DNA. 23andMe also offers limited motherline and fatherline results as part of this main ancestry test.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition associated with very high levels of cholesterol in the blood, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol. High cholesterol due to FH increases the risk for early cardiovascular disease, which can lead to a heart attack. This test includes 24 genetic variants linked to FH.
In testing, we found that many tests have much more specific and detailed results for European ancestry than anywhere else. This is due more to the diversity of the database than size. For example, AncestryDNA has the largest database with over 10 million samples yet results for Asian ancestry are markedly less specific than results from several companies with much smaller databases, including 23andMe and Living DNA.
This is very interesting…thanks for sharing—regarding you husband’s results– the Somali 1% might not be so crazy at all—look at the map– horn of east Africa to Yemen area (had a large Jewish population long ago)…to Palestine-Israel…to Europe in the centuries long diaspora..actually your comments made me more inclined to try this newer company. I am grateful to you.
This report tells you interesting information, such as that your DNA relatives are 32 percent more likely to own a cat or 11 percent less likely to have lived near a farm when they were young. DNA Passport by Humancode offers information about more than 20 physical traits, from appearance to grip strength. Ancestry DNA recently added its AncestryDNA Traits upgrade for $10, and it lets customers who have already taken one of its tests unlock information about 18 genetically influenced traits, including bitter taste perception, freckles and cilantro aversion.
As stated at the start of this guide, each one of the main tests will provide you with easy-to-use reports and cousin matching that you can use in your genealogy research. You will need to carefully review the information provided in this guide to make a decision about which test is best for your particular needs. You may also choose to test with (or upload your results to) multiple companies.
If you're creeped out by how much information Facebook, Google and Amazon have on you based on your online browsing habits, just remember that these DNA testing services are getting what is effectively your medical history. Make sure of their policies before turning over that valuable data. Also, even if you don't share your DNA with a service, your familial DNA data may be available if a relative shared their genetic material. The privacy issues can get very complex.

The 100,000 Genomes Project is an NHS initiative, run by Genomics England, and is the largest national genome sequencing project in the world. On entering, patients have their entire genome, of more than 3bn base pairs, sequenced. This is different from commercially available genetic testing kits, such as those from 23andMe, which only look at very small stretches of DNA in a process called genotyping. The hope of the NHS is that having so much genetic information, from so many different people, will allow “groundbreaking discoveries about how diseases work, who could be susceptible to them, how we can treat them, and what treatments might work”.


A genetic counselor, a healthcare professional with special training in genetic conditions, will be able to answer your questions and help you make an informed choice. We recommend that you speak with a genetic counselor before testing, and also after testing to help you understand your results and what actions you should take. This is especially important for health conditions that are preventable or treatable.
The only patients having their genome sequenced are those with certain cancers or rare diseases. In some cases, family members may also be asked to participate. To take part, a patient must first be referred by a consultant, before being taken through an extensive consent process to ensure they know what participation in the project means. As well as the genome sequence, Genomics England asks for access to a patient’s lifetime medical records so that links can be made between their genetics and their individual disease. The NHS has made it very clear that, for many participants, taking part in this project won’t help them treat their disease. But it is hoped that the information they provide will go on to help treat others in the future.

In fairness to 23andME, it leaves it up to the customer to unlock the more serious results – or not. When I unlock mine, I discover that, while I’m not genetically predisposed to such things as the BRAC1 or BRAC2 variant, Parkinson’s or MS, I have one of the variants for late-onset (mid-80s) Alzheimer’s. However, I don’t have any other markers for Alzheimer’s or family history or conditions associated with it or anything else listed in the rather lengthy disclaimer, which also stresses that it’s not a diagnostic result and to seek further advice from your GP if you are concerned.
ARSACS Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum with Peripheral Neuropathy Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Beta Thalassemia and Related Hemoglobinopathies Bloom Syndrome Canavan Disease Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a (PMM2-CDG) Cystic Fibrosis D-Bifunctional Protein Deficiency Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency Familial Dysautonomia Familial Hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-Related) Familial Mediterranean Fever Fanconi Anemia Group C GRACILE Syndrome Gaucher Disease Type 1 Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Herlitz Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (LAMB3-Related) Leigh Syndrome, French Canadian Type Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2D Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I MCAD Deficiency Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B Mucolipidosis Type IV Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN5-Related) Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (PPT1-Related) Niemann-Pick Disease Type A Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss and Deafness, DFNB1 (GJB2-Related) Pendred Syndrome and DFNB4 Hearing Loss (SLC26A4-Related) Phenylketonuria and Related Disorders Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1 Salla Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Tay-Sachs Disease Tyrosinemia Type I Usher Syndrome Type 1F Usher Syndrome Type 3A Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum (PEX1-Related)

Instead, MyHeritage DNA reported I that I’m of Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese, and Mongolian descent. As I was looking for a reason to explain the discrepancy between tests, I discovered that there are large swaths of the map not covered by any of the service’s ancestral regions. The Korean peninsula is one of those areas, as are southern regions in South America, Africa and almost all of Australia and Russia. The oversight seems odd because MyHeritage could have easily included these missed areas inside a larger, generalized region instead of completely omitting them.


AncestryDNA has the largest database to compare your results to when making matches, with 23andMe coming in second and FTDNA in fourth. MyHeritage DNA, although newer than the others, is catching up fast and numbers now surpass FTDNA. Current numbers can be seen in the chart above and are estimates based on available data. Each of these databases is growing, some of them quite rapidly.
Next, you'll receive an email alert that your results are ready, and that's when the fun begins. Your results may not be as dramatic as those portrayed in TV ads, but you may find some surprises. One important note: Results are different for women and men. Women, who have the XX chromosome, can only trace back the maternal line. Men, having the XY chromosome, can track back the maternal and paternal line, painting a complete picture. If you're a woman, it's worth asking your brother, if you have one, to take a test and share the results. When some of these services ask for your sex when you order your kit, they simply want to know about your chromosomes.
If you have the Health + Ancestry Service you have access to the full 23andMe experience. If you only have the Ancestry Service, you can easily upgrade to the Health + Ancestry Service for £90 which gives you access to all 125+ reports on ancestry, traits and health. You are eligible to upgrade once you have received your Ancestry reports. To upgrade, log in to your 23andMe account and navigate to the Settings page. You will receive immediate access to your new health reports.
When asked about how database size affects ancestry results, David Nicholson, co-founder of Living DNA, told us, “The tests absolutely rely on the reference database. If you have Polish ancestry but there are no people in the database who are Polish, then what the test will do is show what the next closest group is next to Polish, like German or Eastern European ancestry.” 
1. Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder: One of the first to offer these types of tests, FTDNA is generally considered the leader in autosomal DNA testing for ancestry and provides some of the best tools available for genealogists. Their population finder section is currently a bit less specific than the other companies, but FTDNA Family Finder users are eagerly awaiting a much improved update to be released sometime in the next month. Find out about Family Finder here.
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