Molly K. McLaughlin is a New York-based writer and editor with more than a decade of experience covering technology. She has tested and reviewed all sorts of software, mobile apps, and gadgets. Before launching her freelance business, she was an editor at PC Magazine, covering consumer electronics, followed by a stint at ConsumerSearch.com, a revie... See Full Bio
AncestryDNA is a cutting edge DNA testing service that utilizes some of the latest autosomal testing technology to revolutionize the way you discover your family history. This service combines advanced DNA science with the world’s largest online family history resource to predict your genetic ethnicity and help you find new family connections. It maps ethnicity going back multiple generations and provides insight into such possibilities as: what region of Europe are my ancestors from, or am I likely to have East Asian heritage? AncestryDNA can also help identify relationships with unknown relatives through a dynamic list of DNA matches
The 100,000 Genomes Project is an NHS initiative, run by Genomics England, and is the largest national genome sequencing project in the world. On entering, patients have their entire genome, of more than 3bn base pairs, sequenced. This is different from commercially available genetic testing kits, such as those from 23andMe, which only look at very small stretches of DNA in a process called genotyping. The hope of the NHS is that having so much genetic information, from so many different people, will allow “groundbreaking discoveries about how diseases work, who could be susceptible to them, how we can treat them, and what treatments might work”.
When I found out about AncestryDNA, I thought this could be the perfect tool to pinpoint where my family emigrated over the past few hundred years (AncestryDNA can actually go back 1000 years) and give me a focus where to take my search next. When I got the email that my results were ready I felt like a kid on Christmas day. They revealed that I was only 40% British, 25% German and 35% Greek. I’ve now focused my search on these three countries and already discovered ancestors I never knew existed.
Bill Newman, professor of translational genomic medicine in the Manchester centre for genomic medicine at the University of Manchester, and chair of the British Society of Genetic Medicine, says that such tests in this context simply don’t make sense and that, usually, telomere testing would only be used in in-depth studies of ageing and diseases associated with ageing. “There’s some really brilliant work going on, by some of the best biologists in the world,” says Newman, citing Elizabeth Blackburn, who won the 2009 Nobel prize for medicine for her work on telomeres. “But there’s no evidence whatsoever that measuring a person’s telomeres gives any indication about their health – or beauty, intelligence, or anything else that might be listed on these sites.”
When I took my first DNA test in 2016 I was disappointed, in part because I didn’t do my research, so my goal in this review is help others avoid that scenario. Beyond ancestry tests, there are companies that recommend wines or exercise regimens based on your DNA. With all the available options, it’s easy to default to a recognizable name, which isn’t necessarily bad. But certain tests do specific things better. Our goal is to match your expectations with the test that fits best.

Note that DNA testing isn't the only kind of kit that collects physical evidence from you these days. Ubiome is one noteworthy example. The service evaluates your microbiome—basically the bacteria that live in and on you. In our review, we took its gut biome test, which required our intrepid reviewer to send in a poop sample (insert poop emoji here).

Kits are despatched within 5-7 days of purchase date. The delivery time for your kit will vary depending on the postal service you have selected. Once you receive your kit, follow the simple instructions to activate it and send us your DNA sample. If you’re a new or returning Findmypast customer, you’ll receive a complimentary 14-day Findmypast subscription when you activate your kit.


If you want to keep things really simple then we recommend 23andMe as it offers the best all-round DNA testing kit. It offers a mix of everything including family matching, ancestry percentages and optional heath insights. If you’re more interested in your genealogy then the AncestryDNA kit provides more detail along a gene pool and family tree. The National Geographic Geno 2.0 DNA kit is the best kit for connecting your genes to history going back up to 100,000 years.


Although the project states that most participants won’t receive any useful information, patients will be told if something is found in their genome that is relevant to the treatment, explanation or diagnosis of their condition. They can also choose to learn if they have a genetic risk factor for another disease, such as the BRCA1 gene mutation that can cause breast cancer. Genomics England will only look for risk factors that are linked to a disease that can be treated or prevented. Untreatable conditions, such as Alzheimer’s, are not looked for.
HomeDNA has the simplest DNA extraction process; just swab each cheek twice with a cotton swab, and place the swabs in the included envelope. The National Geographic Genographic Project sent a scraper that you use on each cheek for 45 seconds, and then place in a vial with stabilizing liquid. MyHeritage DNA has a similar process. 23andMe and AncestryDNA require that you spit into a tube up to the fill line (harder than it sounds), and ship it back with stabilization liquid. Most of the services said not to eat, drink, or smoke for 30 minutes to an hour prior to testing to get the best possible sample.

Every company providing DNA testing has their own database of DNA samples. These are called AIM’s or ancestry informative markers. These markers were derived from the current populations of America, Asia, Europe and Africa. Every database is looking for a pair of genes located on a specific chromosome in a specific position. The way the DNA is evaluated is through the SNP’s or the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The SNP’s are chosen according to the frequency in a specific geographical population. Your SNP’s are compared to the most common SNP’s for the various populations in the company’s reference database. The results are not conclusive because they are based on common genetic variations. The probability for your DNA being from a certain country is based on a comparison between your DNA and the database. If you used a different company, they would have a different database. This means your results would most likely differ. According to studies, the lowest concordance is with individuals of South Asian, East Asian and Hispanic descent.
On all platforms except for National Geographic, you can initiate a search for relatives, though some services let you upload your National Geographic results for further analysis. The software continually searches for DNA matches as more people share their results. This feature may be useful if you're building a family tree or looking for relatives you've never met; otherwise, it may more of a nuisance. You can opt in or out at any time, and the DNA service doesn't share your contact information. Relatives can message you through the software, though. If you already use genealogy software, you may be able to download your results and upload them into your preferred program. Otherwise, AncestryDNA and others featured here have family tree software that you can easily link.
We constantly strive to improve our service and keep up to date with the latest developments in this area, so you always receive the highest quality of results. Our non invasive prenatal paternity test is a one-of–a-kind test that makes it clear who the daddy is with 0% risk at only 10 weeks of pregnancy. Through us, you have access to a whole range of relationship tests, forensic services, health and clinical tests and never need to go anywhere else. So what is it you need to know? Just tell us what you want to establish, provide us with your DNA samples and we will provide the answers.
Paternity tests: At-home paternity tests have been around much longer than other direct-to-consumer DNA tests. Most of them require you to collect cheek swab samples from a prospective father and child, which you then send off to a lab to determine paternity. For non-legal use, these tests can cost as little as $15, but tests that provide verified results that are admissible in court cost a few hundred dollars.
EasyDNA UK specialises in providing DNA tests that are affordable, accurate and confidential. Our home paternity test is on special offer at just £99 for a limited period. There are NO EXTRA FEES. Sample collection is performed using our easy-to-use DNA test kit. Your DNA paternity testing results are ready in only 3-5 working days. We also offer the option of getting results in 3 working days with our express service (from receipt of samples at the laboratory). EasyDNA tests 21 genetic markers for total accuracy so you can have the peace of mind that you need. A home paternity test provides a 99.99% accurate result if the alleged father is the biological father and a 100% accuracy if he is not.

The most common type of DNA test is an autosomal test – ie the ones you see advertised all over the place. These tests give you both ethnicity results and matches – not just cousins but whoever you’re related to who have also tested with the same company. Ethnicity results are a result of both parents and cannot be separated with a single autosomal test. Ancestry and FTDNA are great picks and both will suit you well. The main difference in my opinion is that Ancestry has a much larger customer database, which means you’ll get more matches. And yes,… Read more »
Next, you'll receive an email alert that your results are ready, and that's when the fun begins. Your results may not be as dramatic as those portrayed in TV ads, but you may find some surprises. One important note: Results are different for women and men. Women, who have the XX chromosome, can only trace back the maternal line. Men, having the XY chromosome, can track back the maternal and paternal line, painting a complete picture. If you're a woman, it's worth asking your brother, if you have one, to take a test and share the results. When some of these services ask for your sex when you order your kit, they simply want to know about your chromosomes.
Your review of the various testing companies is misleading and incomplete. The only test that can give information about recent relatives ( 5 generations back only) is the autosomal test. The others only give our ‘deep’ roots out of Africa migration thousands of years ago. But for the autosomal test to provide us names with whom we can contact, we have to give permission to have our email and name listed (and of course so do others). The tests that say we are such-and-such % of this or that ethnicity isn’t very accurate because, keep in mind, the wars and the spoils of wars that humans have been engaged in forever, mean we all have a mixture of genetic material from around the world. I can tell that the author(s) of this review did not really understand what these tests are about.
Although the project states that most participants won’t receive any useful information, patients will be told if something is found in their genome that is relevant to the treatment, explanation or diagnosis of their condition. They can also choose to learn if they have a genetic risk factor for another disease, such as the BRCA1 gene mutation that can cause breast cancer. Genomics England will only look for risk factors that are linked to a disease that can be treated or prevented. Untreatable conditions, such as Alzheimer’s, are not looked for.

Next, you'll receive an email alert that your results are ready, and that's when the fun begins. Your results may not be as dramatic as those portrayed in TV ads, but you may find some surprises. One important note: Results are different for women and men. Women, who have the XX chromosome, can only trace back the maternal line. Men, having the XY chromosome, can track back the maternal and paternal line, painting a complete picture. If you're a woman, it's worth asking your brother, if you have one, to take a test and share the results. When some of these services ask for your sex when you order your kit, they simply want to know about your chromosomes.
*Substantiated by AncestryDNA, May 2018 report. WARNING: AncestryDNA highly discourages the purchase of our DNA kit from unauthorized resellers. To ensure the best experience and service, please purchase directly from AncestryDNA Official. DNA kits that are fraudulently purchased and then resold through Amazon may be deactivated by AncestryDNA, and may not be eligible for a refund.
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The trick for collecting a saliva sample is to give yourself plenty of time to create enough spit to fill your tube to the fill line (not including any bubbles). You should not eat or drink anything for at least an hour before collecting your sample, so it’s best to plan to collect your sample before eating. Our testers collected samples before lunch and found that thinking about the upcoming meal made saliva production easier, particularly as we collected multiple samples. Planning ahead and making sure you stay hydrated before you collect a saliva sample helps as well.

Since genome sequencing is still a relatively young science, we don't recommend submitting your child’s DNA to direct-to-consumer companies. We do encourage consulting with your doctor about genetic testing for your child. Due to some concerns with the DNA testing industry, the choice to have one’s genes sequenced by a private company should be made with informed consent. Those concerns are magnified when applied to children, who cannot make their own decisions regarding the unlikely potential risks or privacy concerns. 

I would like to know about the paternal side of my father’s family. My problem is that there are no living males. (My father’s sister had a son that is still living, however, if he does a Y-dna test I believe that will only give out HIS father’s information). I wonder if I should have this male cousin take the mtDNA test instead. That way I could at least find out more about the maternal side of my father’s family. Any advice?
If you’ve always wondered about where your roots stem from but never knew how or where to find out, we’re here to tell you that the search is finally over! With DNA testing being easily accessible for all, the answers to your ancestry questions will soon be revealed. A simple DNA test can be completed from the comforts of your own home and will open your eyes to the mysteries of your family tree, once and for all. We have tested the best DNA tests for ancestry and gathered all the available information so you would be able to get the best decision on the journey to discover the realm of your genetic heritage. We recommend MyHeritage as the best Ancestry DNA test available.
AncestryDNA is a cutting edge DNA testing service that utilizes some of the latest autosomal testing technology to revolutionize the way you discover your family history. This service combines advanced DNA science with the world’s largest online family history resource to predict your genetic ethnicity and help you find new family connections. It maps ethnicity going back multiple generations and provides insight into such possibilities as: what region of Europe are my ancestors from, or am I likely to have East Asian heritage? AncestryDNA can also help identify relationships with unknown relatives through a dynamic list of DNA matches

So I get my DNA result and it has even less information than what my address can tell about me. They say they don't have have much information on the area am from. But that's not something they tell you when you buy. Furthermore half the information is incorrect. Called customer services and the answer is - Sorry you feel that way, nothing we can do. DO NOT SPEND YOUR MONEY HERE. MIGHT AS WELL BURN IT!!!
EasyDNA specialises in paternity testing. Results provide 100% accuracy if the male tested is not the biological father of the child and a 99.99% probability if he is the biological. We also offer a wide range other tests including DNA Profiles, DNA Art, Twin Zygosity DNA Testing, Forensic DNA Testing, Genetic Predisposition Test and Ancestry DNA Testing. Our many relationship tests will help determine whether alleged relatives, such as siblings or grandparents and their grandchildren, are truly biologically related.
For about $20 less than other DNA ancestry services, MyHeritage DNA gives you an ethnicity estimate and access to DNA matches. It’s true value, however, lies in its free raw DNA uploads. If you’ve already taken a test with another company, MyHeritage lets you upload your raw data to its database for free. This feature is particularly useful if you’re looking for lost relatives, as you can pay slightly more for one test with Ancestry or 23andMe, which have larger databases, but still access MyHeritage’s database as well, which has 1.75 million users as of October 2018. With a 16-day turnaround, MyHeritage DNA was one of the first companies to send back our test results, but I found the contents of my ancestry report to be a bit off, especially when compared to my geographic ancestry reports from other companies. I was born in Korea and therefore expected at least a little of my Korean heritage to make it onto my ancestry map, as it did with other services, but MyHeritage didn’t report any Korean heritage. Instead, MyHeritage DNA reported I that I’m of Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese, and Mongolian descent. As I was looking for a reason to explain the discrepancy between tests, I discovered that there are large swaths of the map not covered by any of the service’s ancestral regions. The Korean peninsula is one of those areas, as are southern regions in South America, Africa and almost all of Australia and Russia. The oversight seems odd because MyHeritage could have easily included these missed areas inside a larger, generalized region instead of completely omitting them.
Hi Dianne, First thing first, thanks for your comment. “he only test that can give information about recent relatives ( 5 generations back only) is the autosomal test” – autosomal test is indeed a DNA test that gives you the info regarding your relatives, both from the paternal and maternal lineage. We clearly specified it in the article. Ancestry.com, our best-rated provider, offer this test in their Ancestry DNA test. Regarding the accuracy of the time frame you specified, there is indeed a diminishing marginal utility of accuracy as you go back deeper into the past (generation wise). According to one of our most trusted sources (University College of London), the accuracy is 10 generations back and not 5 as you specified (Please provide a source to your number, so we would be able to check it and revise if needed). 10 generation back is a quite long time span – 300 years (more or less). “The tests that say we are such-and-such % of this or that ethnicity isn’t very accurate because keep in mind, the wars and the spoils of wars that humans have been engaged in forever, mean we all have a mixture of genetic material from around the world” – Indeed, most of our ancestors were mixed due to historical events (wars, migration and etc.), but I don’t find how your statement is connected to the fact that this test is not accurate. DNA test is objective and gives you the naked facts. To conclude,
DNA Clinics will always advise an appointment for your DNA test. However, there are occasions and circumstances when our customers prefer to collect their own mouth swab samples for DNA testing. DNA Clinics self-collection DNA testing kits are available to order by telephone by calling 0800 988 7107 or on-line at www.homednapaternitytest.co.uk. DNA test kits ordered on-line are sent out for FREE. The payment for your chosen DNA test is payable when you return your samples to DNA Clinics.
I decided to take the plunge and purchased an AncestryDNA test before Christmas when it was on special offer with free delivery at only £40. When you consider that what you receive in the Kit is a plastic tube with a bit of blue liquid and en envelope to send it back to them, I am glad I did not pay more as these tests are still in the 'baby' fazes of DNA testing and subsequent discussions with people who are experts in the field have discovered that Ancestry is at the bottom of the rung. Of course the test is done in a Lab and people have to be paid, but the standard fee of £80 + shipping is way overpriced.

I’ve been working on my family tree for decades. When I took the AncestryDNA autosomal test, the ethnic results matched my expectations, with mild variations. I knew my mother was of completely Irish heritage, but I came up 58% Irish, so apparently some of Dad’s British ancestors were Irish, not English, for instance. The section that matched me to other DNA test-takers was also accurate. I recognized a couple of my second cousins listed there. Other people had taken the test but hadn’t created a family tree, so there was no point in contacting them to figure out which ancestors we had in common. Be sure you’ve done some research on your own family–these kits do NOT tell you where you grandparents came from, or their occupations, or their names. They tell you how much of your DNA is common with certain nations or areas. I know I have some Germanic ancestors, so when my kit said “14% West Europe” and that turned out to include Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, and Lichtenstein, it made sense.
Some services include shipping costs in the cost of the kit; AncestryDNA's $99 fee includes two-way shipping. National Geographic's Genographic Project ships the kits for free, but you have to purchase postage when you send your kit to their lab. 23andMe tacks on a two-way shipping fee of $9.95 for the first kit and $5 for each additional one. HomeDNA includes a prepaid envelope to return your sample and offers three shipping options: $7 for two-day shipping, $14 for overnight, and free shipping that takes 7 to 12 business days. Finally, MyHeritage charges $12 for shipping; if you order two kits, you pay $6, and if you order three or more, you get free shipping.
All of this is way over my head and confusing! I am wanting to purchase as a gift for a friend. The information I would like for the test to show is : 1. lineage for mother and lineage for father. I am not sure lineage is the correct word?! 2. relatives …don’t know if there are companies that show relatives other than just cousins 3. way to contact relatives. If someone would be so kind to recommend what company would be the best I would appreciate it. I have narrowed it down based on reading about different companies to… Read more »
Most ancestry DNA kits cost about $100. AncestryDNA, 23andMe’s Ancestry test and National Geographic’s Geno 2.0 test all fall nicely into that price point. If you’re looking for a bargain, we recommend waiting to buy until your preferred test is on sale, as they’re often available well below their usual price. To get the most for your money, buy an Ancestry or 23andMe kit on sale then upload your raw data to MyHeritage DNA’s database, which is free.
In this case, I would recommend two options: 1. Ancestry.com – If you choose to take their DNA test, you can also take advantage of their family tree feature. Your DNA test results would be compared to other samples in the database. Combining this, with a manual lookup you can do, you might trace relatives on your father’s lineage. 2.LivingDNA – LivingDNA provides a separate unique analysis of the paternal lineage. This analysis will give you an in-depth picture of your father’s heritage. The only drawback is that LivingDNA database is relatively small (compared to ancestery.com and other big competitors). You can bridge that gap using GEDMatch service, by uploading your raw DNA data (acquired by LivingDNA). You can read more about GEDMatch here. Good luck and I hope you would find what you are looking for!
Most of the services we tested use genotyping to read your DNA. Genotyping looks for specific markers in your genetic code. For something like ancestry testing, genotyping is effective because it identifies known variants in your DNA. Scientifically speaking, genotyping’s weakness is that it can only recognize previously identified markers. This is one reason DNA tests’ accuracy relies so heavily on the DNA database size; there must be enough information available and identified genetic variants in the database to recognize new customers’ markers.
A collaboration between scientists, researchers and genetic experts from across the globe, Living DNA has offered ancestry tests since 2016 while parent company, DNA Worldwide Group, has been operating since 2004. Our focus has always been on providing the world’s best collection of British and Irish historical records and while we’ve investigated the DNA market for some time, we hadn’t identified a partner that could truly bridge the gap between genetic genealogy and traditional family history research. Living DNA’s focus on British and Irish DNA makes them our perfect partner.
yes, I’m really concerned where and who is my real father. I have been told it was one guy, but before my mother has said he might not be real dad. And there has been to many remarks that I’m believing it might be my real father after all and this guy my mother has said that she dated before was named David something I don’t know his last name but she thinks he’s died. All I want is to find out who my real father is, I’m 21 years old and has been lied to too many too count. So please help me
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